The Art Of Leonardo Opera Omnia

  • Dates:2019-04-16 - 2019-05-23
  • Location:CAFA Art Museum
  • Opening:2019-04-16 16:00
  • Organizer(s): CAFA Art Museum Istituto Italiano di Cultura di Pechino

Details

Leonardo da Vinci is a painter, an architect, an engineer and a scientist. He is the most remarkable talent of the Italian Renaissance. His longing for knowledge made him a master in a diverse range of fields, yet despite his versatility he left only a small number of oil paintings with the world.... More
Leonardo da Vinci is a painter, an architect, an engineer and a scientist. He is the most remarkable talent of the Italian Renaissance. His longing for knowledge made him a master in a diverse range of fields, yet despite his versatility he left only a small number of oil paintings with the world.

With the new Opera Omnia scanning and printing technologies, the audience can now appreciate at one exhibition the high-definition, full-sized replicas of 17 da Vinci’s masterpieces, housed separately in top museums around the world.


Preface

https://timg1.artimg.net/museum-image/image/201904/sy_1556096474212710.jpeg


With the original da Vinci oil paintings housed separately around the world, “The Art of Leonardo Opera Omnia” is almost an “impossible encounter” with the great Renaissance master.


The audience could examine closely da Vinci’s classic oil paintings, including The Last Supper, painted in the late 15th century and housed by the Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan, Italy; Mona Lisa, described by French poet Théophile Gautier as a “sphinx of beauty who smiles so mysteriously”; St. John the Baptist, a perfect embodiment of the artist’s note that drew parallels between water and the curly hair; and Bacchus, Lady with an Ermine and 12 other masterpieces.


1555301161143438.jpg

The Last Supper

Mural painting, 460 x 880 cm

Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan, Italy

Completed in 1498


1555301235763934.jpg

Mona Lisa

Oil on poplar panel, 77 x 53 cm

The Louvre Museum, Paris

c. 1503-1506


1555301300649654.jpg

St. John the Baptist

Oil on walnut wood, 69 x 57 cm

The Louvre Museum, Paris

c. 1513-1516


1555301376501287.jpg

Bacchus

Oil on walnut panel transferred to canvas, 177 x 115 cm

The Louvre Museum, Paris

1510-1515


1555301423657701.jpg 

Lady with an Ermine

Oil on wood panel, 54 x 39 cm

National Museum, Kraków, Poland

1489-1490


The exhibition will last from April 16 to May 23, 2019.

1555300929976297.png

https://timg1.artimg.net/museum-image/image/201904/sy_1556096474212710.jpeg


With the original da Vinci oil paintings housed separately around the world, “The Art of Leonardo Opera Omnia” is almost an “impossible encounter” with the great Renaissance master.


The audience could examine closely da Vinci’s classic oil paintings, including The Last Supper, painted in the late 15th century and housed by the Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan, Italy; Mona Lisa, described by French poet Théophile Gautier as a “sphinx of beauty who smiles so mysteriously”; St. John the Baptist, a perfect embodiment of the artist’s note that drew parallels between water and the curly hair; and Bacchus, Lady with an Ermine and 12 other masterpieces.


1555301161143438.jpg

The Last Supper

Mural painting, 460 x 880 cm

Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan, Italy

Completed in 1498


1555301235763934.jpg

Mona Lisa

Oil on poplar panel, 77 x 53 cm

The Louvre Museum, Paris

c. 1503-1506


1555301300649654.jpg

St. John the Baptist

Oil on walnut wood, 69 x 57 cm

The Louvre Museum, Paris

c. 1513-1516


1555301376501287.jpg

Bacchus

Oil on walnut panel transferred to canvas, 177 x 115 cm

The Louvre Museum, Paris

1510-1515


1555301423657701.jpg 

Lady with an Ermine

Oil on wood panel, 54 x 39 cm

National Museum, Kraków, Poland

1489-1490


The exhibition will last from April 16 to May 23, 2019.

1555300929976297.png

Artworks

Photographs

Related essays

Innovator Da Vinci: The Scientific and Technological Symbol of Renaissance | Lecture Report ...

2019-04-26

Professor Plinio Innocenzi of Università degli Studi di Sassari gives a lecture about Leonardo da Vinci’s scientific and technological achievements, and the Renaissance Genius’ relationship with his time’s scientific development. This is the second lecture of The Art of Leonardo Opera Omnia Exhibition series. More

Leonardo and Anatomy | Lecture Report ...

2019-04-30

The lecture featured two speakers, Dr. Giampaolo Ghilardi and Dr. Nicola Di Stefano, both experts in the research of da Vinci’s anatomical drawings from Italy. More

Revealing the sfumato Technique of Leonardo da Vinci by X‐Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy ...

2019-05-15

Non‐invasive X‐ray fluorescence spectroscopy was used to reveal the sfumato paint layer stacking method that was used by Leonardo da Vinci to paint the faces in seven of his paintings. A strong diversity in his technique could clearly be seen with this method. More

Techniques and Secrets behind The Last Supper | Lecture Report ...

2019-05-15

Mr. Mario Taddei, chief researcher at the Leonardo3 Museum and Research Center, shared his research results on Leonardo da Vinci’s masterpiece The Last Supper at CAFAM. More

讲座纪实|达·芬奇与《绘画之书》 ...

2019-08-18

时间:2019年6月12日(晚)地点:中央美术学院学术报告厅主讲嘉宾:卡罗·卫芥 意大利那不勒斯东方大学意大利文学教授,文学、语言学和比较文学博士研究生院院长,意大利知名的文艺复兴文学史和文明史的研究学者主持人:高高  中央美术学院美术馆馆长助理 高高:大家晚上好,欢迎大家今天前来参加达·芬奇这堂讲座,一直关注央美展览的观众知道,这个讲座是我们在上月底已经结束的《达·芬奇——不可能相遇》展览系列讲座的最后一场。我们在讲座展览期间组织了关于达·芬奇方方面面的讲座,有关达·芬奇与解剖学的、达·芬奇与科技发明、达·芬奇与绘画中对于女性形象的研究。今天我们非常荣幸邀请到卡罗·卫芥教授来为我们介绍达·芬奇至今唯一一件出版的手稿。从他的手稿中我们能够看出达·芬奇各个方面的研究,这也是一把理解达·芬奇的最基本的钥匙。卡罗·卫芥教授本人是意大利知名的文艺复兴文学史和文明史研究学者,同时他也是达·芬奇方面研究的权威专家。我们下面就欢迎卡罗·卫芥教授为我们演讲。 卡罗·卫芥:首先我要感谢中央美术学院美术馆对我的邀请。我今天非常高兴能够在一所美术学院来谈达·芬奇,因为美术学院是培养艺术家的地方,而这样的一个地方跟当年年轻的达·芬奇在佛罗伦萨成长地方是非常相似的。相信达·芬奇如果生活在今天这个时代的话,他肯定很愿意成为我们中央美术学院的一个学生。而且我也觉得这个美术馆建议给我演讲的标题我也很喜欢,并不是泛泛、笼统地去谈达·芬奇,而是谈一部他所留下的关于艺术创造的论著。这部论著叫做“绘画之书”,这是多年前我刚开始研究达·芬奇的时候最感兴趣的一部论著。对我个人而言,谈这样一部作品好像把我带回了我的年轻时光。关于达·芬奇这样一个伟大人物,当我们去尝试了解他的时候绕不开一个最初始的问题,就是我们如何去了解他的作品,如何能够去探寻他的思想。达·芬奇的名字可以说在全世界范围内都是家喻户晓的,而且绝大多数人都能够数出达·芬奇最重要的作品。即便如此,我们可不可以认为我们已经足够了解这个人,足够了解他的思想以及足够了解他在艺术和科学领域从事的种种研究呢?我们如何才能够捕捉到精美绝伦的作品背后传递给我们信息和意义。答案非常简单——我们可以通过他的手稿来了解,我们认为达·芬奇的手稿其实是他最为重要的作品。作为画家的达·芬奇留给我们的作品数量是非常有限的。或许我们能确信出自达·芬奇之手的作品只有10-15件,而且在这10-15件作品中好多幅都是没有完成的作品。这说明一件事情,达·芬奇并没有把他人生中最重要、最多的时间花在绘画上,而是更多分配给他的学术研究。这也从一个角度说明达·芬奇一天时光是如何分配——可能大部分时光并没有分配给绘画,而是分配给了读书和写作。这些手稿有的是散页形式呈现的,有的被装订成小册子。而这些散页、册子上的手稿文字就构成我们今天了解达·芬奇最为重要的资料来源,包括他对机械的研究、对解剖的研究,对一系列科学和技术的研究都出现在这样的手稿里头。 列奥纳多·达·芬奇(Leonardo da Vinci),1452-15191915年达·芬奇逝世了,而在他逝世后的好几百年里这些手稿从来都是无人问津,没有受到过重视。在他死后将近300年里达·芬奇所留下的这份精神遗产,在欧洲是不为人知的。那么至于对达·芬奇手稿的再度发掘和重视那是很晚的事情,是现当代19-20世纪发生的事情。另外一个关于他手稿的问题是:在纂写手稿的过程中达·芬奇没有遵循任何顺序,在这些手稿的同一页纸上可能同时出现关于水文的研究、关于几何的一些笔记、关于解剖的一些思考,或者对于绘画的一些感受。达·芬奇不止一次想要计划写有系统、有顺序、有逻辑的一本或很多本书,但是他穷尽一生也没有完成一本。他可能会设想很多论著标题,会给这些论著设想一些提纲,甚至一些详细的目录他都已经写好了,但是书没有写出来。 弗朗西斯科·梅尔兹(Francesco Melzi)1491-1568/70在后半生的20-30年中,他一直不断地写一些章节,但是整体的书稿从来都没有完成过。他设想的论著非常多——解剖论、水文论、大地论、世界论、光学等等很多。只有唯一的一本书最后真正出版了,这本书是在欧洲首先出版的。这本书的出版要感谢这个年轻人,他是达·芬奇最后的一位徒弟,这个年轻人的名字叫弗朗西斯科·梅尔兹。他出生在米兰的贵族家庭,是达·芬奇晚年时期挑选的最后一位弟子。这个素描图出自达·芬奇另外一位弟子蒙特拉斐尔(音),他给梅尔兹画了一个肖像画,他展现的就是15岁的梅尔兹刚刚进入到达·芬奇的画室当学徒。梅尔兹进入达·芬奇画室以后也逐渐成为一位了优秀的画家,也留下不少画作,但是他最突出的特点是他的人文主义素养。这个年轻学徒是一个文学素养很好的人,他懂拉丁文也懂希腊文,而且书法很漂亮,达·芬奇之所以选择他就是希望他能够帮助自己在晚年时期去整理和归纳自己的书稿。在达·芬奇晚年完成的手稿中能发现师徒俩之间的合作是非常频繁的。在1915年去世前期达·芬奇是在遗嘱中将自己所有的书籍以及所有的书稿全都留给了这一位徒弟。在达·芬奇去世几年后,他的弟子就开始按照老师留下来的方法,开始逐渐整理书稿中所有关于绘画的内容。然后把它整理出来以后就抄在右边我们看到的新书里面。那么这样一本书如今被收藏在梵蒂冈的图书馆被称之为乌比纳岱(音)抄本。我们在最上面能看到他当年写下的标题:佛罗伦萨画家和雕塑家列奥纳多达·芬奇先生的绘画之书。 达·芬奇,《绘画之书》接下来就是梅尔兹从他老师留下来的书稿中腾抄出来的内容。我们在这里可以看到这本书的标题以及最初的一段话,就在这第一页里面就已经出现非常重要的内容。第一句话就是绘画是不是一门科学。通过开篇的问题达·芬奇提出一个观点,对于他来说绘画不仅仅是一种艺术创作,它同样是一种科学,是一个认知的过程。那么梅尔兹他把这个书稿一共分成八个部分,八个章节。 《绘画之书》第一页第一部分我看到这张并没有章节标题,只是书的名称,后面没有标题的文字。第一部分达·芬奇的核心思想是从各个角度去论证绘画是一门科学。在接下来的章节里达·芬奇把绘画同其他的一些艺术门类进行了对比。那么主要是和文字、诗歌、音乐、雕塑进行了对比。他们所想表明的核心观点是——绘画比其他各个门类艺术都要高人一等,有两个原因:1、他认为绘画是一门科学。2、他认为绘画相较于其他任何自然艺术和人为艺术而言,都是最接近于自然界最真实的一种艺术,所以它要高人一筹。所以这个第一个章节被命名叫做艺术比较论。在古代意大利中(巴拉诺尼)这个词就是放在一起对观知进行比较。第二章节标题叫做《画家守则》,是对于画家的一些教诲。这章主要内容是对于绘画职业的一些教诲以及对绘画者的人生教诲,有一些是关于生活的一些教诲比如说达·芬奇劝诫艺术家有的时候应该独处。他有一句很知名的话“当你独处的时候,你完全属于你自己”。在这个部分他也会插入一些关于绘画具体技法的讲解。比如说如何描绘一个战争的场景,如何描绘一个风景……他会提出一些建议。他的一些技法有:可以把一个吸满水的海绵扔向墙壁,或许可以通过海绵甩在墙上的水痕获得灵感——可能是云的形状或者是山的形态,听起来是很具有现代性的,但是达·芬奇在那个年代就已经开始在尝试了。第三章题目是《人体的运动》,这一章内容对达·芬奇来说非常重要,这种研究成果来自于达·芬奇运动中的人体研究。这章除了探讨运动之外也探讨比例。在文艺复兴时代已经开始探讨美的理想化标准,已经开始探讨黄金分割——大家认为极致的美丽蕴含于完美和谐比例之中。他们认为这个神圣的比例要靠数学和几何学的研究去获得的。第四部分是关于人体服装的描绘。在文艺复兴时期,画一个人物形象往往都是先画人的裸体,然后再用画笔给这个人穿上衣服。这个过程我们在达·芬奇素描手稿中也能看到。比如说在著名的《博士来拜》作品中,我们看到在最初版本的图稿中他画的图像是裸体形象,然后在这个身体基础上再去画服装。我们还能看到达·芬奇早期的作品中包括服装描绘的一些素描稿。第五章篇幅规模最大,主题叫做《论光影》。这是科学成分最为浓郁的一个章节。所有论述基本上都跟光学和视觉感知有关。我们所谓的明暗关系(意)这个词是第一次出现在达·芬奇这部书稿中,这是在意大利第一次出现这个词。在这章里他详尽探讨光线与阴影的各种各样的一些问题,也探讨关于人体的问题。这个光影的问题不仅涉及人体的光影,也涉及到风景的光影,自然光线——那些照亮的山、云、树的自然光线。最后的六、七、八三章是关于与绘画相关其他因素的探讨。比较多粗线的主题是对树的描绘、对云的描绘,还有对地平线的描绘。如果大家回想达·芬奇画作,尤其是他风景画作的话就会意识到这样的一些元素在他的画作中起到非常重要的作用。我们会看到在《博士来拜》等作品中树是非常重要的元素。在《蒙娜丽莎》、《圣母子与圣安娜》等作品里面,云和地平线非常重要。梅尔兹抄完整部书以后做了一个书的目录,并且留下一个图解。对于后世的达·芬奇研究者来说这个图解太重要了。这是他在腾抄整部书过程中用到过的小的图例,在每一个手稿中间他都画这样一个图标。比如说整本书I、E这样的图标表示,还有手稿是用A和G这样的图标来表示的。他所整理的手稿的本数一共是18本。多年前我曾经做过这样的研究工作:对照的梅尔兹整理出来的《绘画之书》去对照的达·芬奇自己手稿的原文,把它们一段一段,哪几本手稿里面抄出来的这一段都找回它原来的位置。我会发现我能找到一些出现在《绘画之书》中的那些段落,我在原稿里能找得到了,但是还有很多段落我在原稿里找不到,这说明那些原稿已经失落了已经没有了。真的是非常感谢梅尔兹的工作,至少一部分手稿因为他的工作得以留存下来了。 《绘画之书》内页大家还能发现另外一个地方,我们看到梅尔兹的书法非常整齐漂亮,为什么这么漂亮?因为他腾抄的时候他有一个很明确的目的性——这本书将来是要被出版的。但是这个书的出版并不是很及时,并不是在16世纪很快就出版了。而是在将近100年之后才出版,是在巴黎1651年才出现了第一版。而且这个书的标题已经发生了变化,用了《列奥纳多达·芬奇绘画论》这个名字,这是一个精装两本装的版本规格,是意法的对照本,而且还能看到同时代其他一些画家的作品。有很多的画家根据达·芬奇的手稿又进行了再创作,然后收录到这个本子里去。在这个书里面看到插图都是出自于17世纪法国最著名的画家普桑之笔。由于这个印刷本的出现,达·芬奇关于绘画的一些思想就得以在欧洲逐渐的传播开来。意法对照版率先出版以后,很快又被转译为其他语言:英文版、德文版、西班牙版……在欧洲的其他国家迅速的流传开来。这个书成为当时欧洲所有美术学院的一个必读教材。这本书的影响很大,举个例子:当时7世纪西方的绘画艺术和中国艺术第一次相遇的时候,我们知道那是很多传教士的功劳,比如来到中的郎世宁等,他们会在宫廷里作画。这些人肯定是受过达·芬奇的绘画论影响的,这是他们在学绘画时候的必读书。但是我们再读这本书的时候,我们清晰的认识到一点:这本书逻辑线条的顺序、主次、结构等并不是达·芬奇完成的,而是他的弟子梅尔兹在抄写的时候边抄写边整理出来的逻辑构架。所以我们今天要进行研究的话,就必须把原本找出来才能够进行文艺理论的批判。只有找到原稿、发现原稿原本顺序是什么,我们才能够明白达·芬奇绘画理论是如何走向成熟的。达·芬奇最早开始写绘画论著的时候大概是30岁上下,应该是1490年前后,当时他身在米兰。他最早开始关注的问题,应该是关于比例的问题。在这页上我们看到他关于人的头部比例的研究。1492年,他开始进行另外研究,这些研究目前是被收录于我们称之为A抄本的抄本之中。这个时候达·芬奇对于整部论绘画这部作品《绘画之书》还没有一个很清晰的构架,他还不知道要写几章、每章的内容是什么。虽然整部书没有清晰的构架,但是他每个段落都是有用的,于是在每一段文字前面他都会写上一个小标题。我们在A抄本可以看出,他的手稿图文之间对应性非常好。所以说看到达·芬奇的工作方式就是图文并茂,当他在写文字的时候他头脑中反映出来的也是图像。在这一页上面我们看到主要研究主题是光与影之间的关系。最后还有一些这种教学性的一些文字出现,这时候达·芬奇已经开始收第一批弟子,所以他也是一位老师了。他要告诉他的弟子如何才能成为一个好的画家。所以这些文字都有一个小标题,用画画的方法来显示。那么这里面都是一些关于在文艺复兴时期,相对来说大家认为比较难画的形象一些描绘的建议。比如说如何去描绘一个战争场景、如何描绘暴风雨或者是一个漆黑的暗夜,是一些在绘画艺术中很难展现的一些主题。 达·芬奇手稿这是达·芬奇另外一个特点,就是总是要挑战一些不可能。在这些创作过程中达·芬奇非常注重分类。比如说一个大类的人体的运动,手可能呈现出各种不同的运动状态或者形态、头部可能出现的各种动作姿态。那么关于这个研究是跟哪幅创作作品有关,就是那幅著名的《抱银鼠的女子》。那么右边关于头部不同姿态的研究实际上为那幅画在做各种准备。 达·芬奇手稿他做的另外一个研究,各种类型的、形状大小不一鼻子形态。这是他的一系列关于鼻子的研究,后来在这个基础上进行人物形象漫画式的创作。为什么写一部关于绘画的书对达·芬奇来说他这么在意呢?因为直到达·芬奇所处的年代——中世纪晚期,文艺复兴早期——绘画一直被认为是一个上不了台面的、属于次之地位的艺术。 达·芬奇手稿为什么绘画处于次之地位?因为绘画一直被认为是一个体力活,他比那些在大学里教的那些脑力的、思维的活动要差一些。为什么被称之为体力活大家认为画画靠手去画手拿着画笔去画,要用手去调色所以被认为是一个机械劳动。看起来这样一种技术好像与其他的艺术是要低人一等的。而达·芬奇所做的恰恰相反他在“绘画之书”要论证的最关键一点是绘画不仅是一门艺术,而且它是高于其它所有艺术的艺术。因为他认为这个绘画的目的是为了展示真实的,而再现真实的前提是必须了解真实。基于这一点,达·芬奇强调绘画是一门科学绘画的过程,是一个认知的过程。所以说达·芬奇很年轻的时候就开始研究各个与绘画相关的学科,比如光学研究、透视研究、解剖研究、植物研究等。 达·芬奇,《维特鲁威人》,约1487年这幅维《特鲁威人》就代表了达·芬奇对于画家的一个界定,他认为画家应该是博学多艺的通才。当然达·芬奇并不是第一个来写这个论绘画这种论著的一个。最近几年的研究可以看出达·芬奇除了写作之外,也是非常热衷于阅读的。在当时来讲他的藏书量也非常可观,他有200本藏书。他的200本藏书里对他的影响最大的很可能就是阿尔贝蒂的《论绘画》。阿尔贝蒂最主要的身份是一个人文主义学者,在人文主义研究的同时,业余时间他也进行艺术创作。阿尔贝蒂声名更重要的来自于他作为建筑设计师的身份——佛罗伦萨的新圣母大殿的外立面就是阿尔贝蒂设计建造的。阿尔贝蒂写了很多论著,这些论著有的是拉丁文写的,但是还有很大一部分是用当时意大利俗语写的,写给同时代的其他艺术家。 莱昂·巴蒂斯塔·阿尔贝蒂(Leon Battista Alberti),1404-1472这个年代是达·芬奇年轻时候的还是青少年时期的年代呢?看他的手里,拿着佛罗伦萨的圣母百花大教堂的图稿,这个教堂的圆形屋顶正是出自于他之手。可以看到阿尔贝蒂《论绘画》非常重要的一页就是关于透视的研究。他在这里面所论述的线性透视在整个文艺复兴时期都起到了非常大作用。马萨其奥、拉斐尔等艺术家都在用这种透视方法,所以我们在研究达·芬奇关于绘画的论著的时候,有必要把他和阿尔贝蒂放在进行对比研究。我们发现达·芬奇很多观点、想法不是没有来源的,有很多内容都是他从阿尔贝蒂那里借鉴来的。在阿尔贝蒂这本书中,有一个观点和达·芬奇有异曲同工之妙,他讲的是绘画是一门科学,而且是一门基于数学和几何学的科学。当时很著名的另外一个画家尼奥·特拉查斯(音),在他的论绘画比例的中也有强调过同样的论断。所以说对数学和几何的研究对达·芬奇的绘画是产生非常大的影响。对达·芬奇的数学和几何学研究起到最大帮助作用的是这样的一位修士,他的名字叫鲁伽·拉琼(音)。这个人就是我刚才说到彼耶罗·迪埃查斯塔(音)的学生,他是一跟达·芬奇同时代的人,也是达·芬奇非常好的朋友。我们在这幅图中看到站在修士旁边是乌尔比诺(音)的公爵,也是修士的学生也在跟他学数学。达·芬奇的拉丁文不好,希腊文更是一窍不通,所以多亏了这位老师的帮助才能够接触到古希腊、古罗马的数学经典——包括欧几里得、阿基米德的作品。在对几何研究的过程中他开始慢慢考虑到数学中无限数的一些研究,而且这种对数学无限性的研究后来变成哲学的无限性。意大利语中无限就是没有终止的意思。在达·芬奇那里也变成了没有轮廓,包括人物和风景的图像是没有边界、没有轮廓的。我们会看到达·芬奇的晚期作品中,人物的形象和风景的形象是没有边界的,一切都彼此消融在一起,这是它的运图法背后的一个哲学理念。达·芬奇的艺术作品中所代表的最高的境界,是没有轮廓、没有止境、没有边界这种的境界。如果我们在看蒙娜丽莎画作的时候,同时读一读他的《绘画之书》中的内容,或许我们能够比只看图像要理解的更深更多。达·芬奇在创作中给自己的设计挑战,是要不断地表现原本不可能表现的东西。他希望把那些不可见的东西变得可见。哪些东西不可的呢?自然的力量,生命的运动。正是通过对《绘画之书》的解读,我们就会明白绘画对于达·芬奇来说他意味着什么?他意味着科学,也意味着哲学。谢谢大家。 高高:非常感谢教授为我们带来的讲解,使我们不仅能够知道达·芬奇重要的手稿绘画制作里面各个主要章节的内容,从中反应达·芬奇所认为绘画的核心的问题以及与他同时代的艺术家所关心的绘画的难点在哪里。同时也为我们展示了达·芬奇思想脉络和他前人的研究成果之间的关系,也解答了一些我们通常在达·芬奇绘画中能看到,但并没有办法深入了解到的近相一些背后的原因。所以这个讲座为我们带来很多知识,所以不知道在座的各位有没有问题想要问教授的。 提问一:教授你好,达·芬奇讲到绘画是一门科学,其实在他的作品里《抱银鼠的妇人》她的手部是没有严格按照人体比例绘画的,包括《最后的晚餐》其实整个透视是符合透视的效果,但是其实也进行了视觉上的一个欺骗,最后达成最好美的呈现。所以在科学与视觉之间包括美学之间平衡的一个点,这也是每一个画家完成作品的时候最重要的一个切入点,是不是这样? 卡罗·卫芥:你提的问题非常重要,达·芬奇认为在艺术创作的过程中,最终的创作成果效果是再现自然。这种再现并不等于一模一样的复制,他认为从观察自然到再现自然的过程,是一个思想加工的过程。在这个过程中艺术家会把他的一些感受、他的理性想法和感性的东西夹在作品里,所以这种呈现是创作性的呈现,而不是完全等同式的复制,也就是我们所说的艺术来源于生活,但同时是高于生活的。所以创作出来的这种真实,是超越真实的真实,是一种被增加之后的真实,尤其在《最后晚餐》是有明显体现的。另外对达·芬奇来讲,对于生命运动性的研究是在不断变化中的,对他而言创作也必须在不断地变化过程当中,自然就是无止境、无边境的,而创作也是开放性的、没有始终的。所以达·芬奇希望他的作品创作也永远都能够像生命一样处在不断的孕育之中。 提问二:教授您好,我想问您一个问题,之前《维特鲁威人》的手稿,他的人体虽然是根据之前维特鲁威的著作里面对于人体和建筑之间关系画出来这张图,我想知道他获得这张图的时候肯定有一定绘画的过程或者绘画依据,就是他对这个人体怎么绘制的。我对这方面想要了解一下,不知道您可以为我解答吗? 卡罗·卫芥:你了解很多,《维特鲁威人》确实是达·芬奇根据古罗马建筑师维特鲁威所写的《建筑论》中间的一个非常有名的段落来进行创作。这个《建筑论》第三章一开篇,维特鲁威讲到完美的比例其实很好找,就在自然之中就有,比如一个完美的人体是可以同时内接于一个圆和一个正方形的。但是这段话维特鲁威只给了文字,自己并没有给出插图而且他的手稿是在文艺复兴时期被发掘出来,被重新翻译成俗语的,所以当时很多艺术家、建筑师纷纷尝试对段文字进行诠释。维特鲁威说这个人体要内接于圆和方,但是怎么内接法,达·芬奇不是唯一尝试的一个人,早在他之前就已经有人做出自己的一种解释,他们也是画出了类似的图稿,但是达·芬奇画得最好的。而达·芬奇超凡之处还不是他图画得最漂亮,而是在这一页上除了图,还有文字。很多人都关注这个图,但是很少关注图上面和下面文字写了什么东西。它上面这段文字是把维特鲁威的大致描述重新说了一遍——维特鲁威说一个完美的人,应该同时内结于自然界中两种最完美的形状中间:一种是圆,一种是正方形。然而在下面文字中他还做出了超出维特鲁威观点的自己的一些新观点,他似乎是想表示什么——这样的图不仅是人的完美比例的一种表达,而且代表文艺复兴时期某种梦想,因为圆和方是宇宙中最为完美的形态,所以人可以处于圆和方的中心,也就意味着人也就处在了宇宙的中心。这是文艺复兴时期人文思想一个核心观点,那么人成为宇宙中间万物的一种标尺,这是一种新的哲学诠释,这是在维特鲁威书里面的没有的,而达·芬奇自己进行了创新。另外,根据最新的一些学术界的发现或者一些观点,有学者还认为这个人的形象、脸部体征、身体比例好像有可能是达·芬奇的某一种的自画像。这幅图的原稿是藏在威尼斯,下个礼拜我要到威尼斯去,会近距离去研究这个图稿。作为一个研究者去接触到手稿的真迹,我希望能够从近处观察,能够去更加仔细去观察达·芬奇的笔触,他画的一些细节。实际上在我研究这么多年的过程中,我每一次跟真迹手稿接触都是觉得非常激动的,我接触过非常多的手稿。而且十七年前我还有一次令人难忘的经历——在卢浮宫里我得以接触到《蒙娜丽莎》的真迹,卸下画框把画稿拿在手里观看。我想对于每一个钟爱达·芬奇的人来说,能够见到他的真迹都会非常激动,而让我毕生难忘的经历,就是十七年前把达·芬奇的《蒙娜丽莎》真迹拿到自己的手里。 提问三:谢谢教授、谢谢主持人。我想请教教授两个问题:第一,这本书的名字是《绘画之书》,那么它对于绘画色彩方面或者在油画的材料方面有没有什么样的描述。第二,刚才你说到他的手稿反映出来,他在绘画时候要先把人体整个的描述出来。那么这种绘画方法,比如在他同期、之前或者之后在西方文艺复兴前后持续多长时间,咱们研究又发现了一些比较重要的画作,都有谁是用这样的画作创作的,谢谢。 卡罗·卫芥:关于第一问题,这里面有没有关于色彩的论述,答案是肯定的,在有一节里头达·芬奇是专门探讨了色彩的使用。关于他对于色彩的一些观点和想法来源,有学者有做这样的猜想——有可能是他受到了亚里士多德一本小册子的影响,亚里士多德的这本小册子就叫《论色彩》。一方面理论上肯定是受影响,另一方面来源于达·芬奇的长期绘画的实践。达·芬奇个人对于色彩使用是具有个人特色的,有的画家喜欢去把各种颜色颜料混在一起,调出来一种他想要的颜色。达·芬奇工作方法不是这样,他是更愿意使用色彩的叠加,在不同时间内的叠加。而且使用的色彩很多时候是清漆——就是透明的漆,一层一层涂上去之后他会发现原有的底色就会发生不同的变化,而且这种叠加并不是在很近的时间完成,是隔了几个月好几年之后的叠加,这是他在不断地进行作品改进之后的得到了一种效果,我们说《蒙娜丽莎》就是典型这样的叠加色彩一种成果。关于第二个问题达·芬奇绘制人体的时候,先画裸体在给这个形象穿衣服,这种方法实际上在达·芬奇比较年轻的时候,他早期的时代中非常普遍的技法。当时达·芬奇在委罗基奥画室学徒,同时代其他艺术家包括波提切利、佩鲁吉诺都是从这个画室里出来的,他们都在使用类似的方法来进行绘画。我觉得今天大家提出的问题都是非常具有深度的问题,所以为你们的问题我也感到非常的赞赏。谢谢。这也说明一个问题,如果我们想更好的了解达·芬奇的话,我们要做的也许不一定是读很多关于达·芬奇的书,而是去读一读达·芬奇自己的书,达·芬奇自己写了什么,说了什么,他自己的文字、他自己的语言是最好的证明。所以我希望将来大家有机会能够读到《绘画之书》的中文版,不是很多的英美学者转述的版本,而是直接从意大利文翻译成以中文这样直接的一种传达,这样大家可能会感受到更多的非常真实的来自达·芬奇的本人的信息。谢谢。 高高:非常感谢教授的今天精彩演讲,也谢谢刚才几位观众精彩的问题。今天讲座就到此结束谢谢大家。作品图片由主讲人提供整理|CAFAM官网编辑部 庄双博 More
Quick loginAccount login
  • Mobile phone number will be your login ID
  •  
Use Artron membership to login

Child Public Education Reservation Form

I agree to the Group Visit Agreement and Statement Please agree to the Group Visit Agreement.
Submit

Adult Public Education Event Reservation Form

I agree to the Group Visit Agreement and Statement Please agree to the Group Visit Agreement.
Sumbit

Group Public Education Event Reservation Form

I agree to the Group Visit Agreement and Statement Please agree to the Group Visit Agreement.
Submit

Group Visit Agreement
and Statement

CAFA Art Museum Publication Authorization Agreement

I fully agree to CAFA Art Museum (CAFAM) submitting to CAFA for publication the images, pictures, texts, writings, and event products (such as works created during participation in workshops) related to me from my participation in public events (including museum member events) organized by the CAFA Art Museum Public Education Department. CAFA can publish these materials by electronic, web, or other digital means, and I hereby agree to be included in the China Knowledge Resource Bank, the CAFA Database, the CAFA Art Museum Database, and related data, documentation, and filing institutions and platforms. Regarding their use in CAFA and dissemination on the internet, I agree to make use of these rights according to the stated Rules.

CAFA Art Museum Event Safety Disclaimer

Article I

This event was organized on the principles of fairness, impartiality, and voluntary participation and withdrawal. Participants undertake all risk and liability for themselves. All events have risks, and participants must be aware of the risks related to their chosen event.

Article II

Event participants must abide by the laws and regulations of the People’s Republic of China, as well as moral and ethical norms. All participants must demonstrate good character, respect for others, friendship, and a willingness to help others.

Article III

Event participants should be adults (people 18 years or older with full civil legal capacity). Underage persons must be accompanied by an adult.

Article IV

Event participants undertake all liability for their personal safety during the event, and event participants are encouraged to purchase personal safety insurance. Should an accident occur during an event, persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for the accident, but both have the obligation to provide assistance. Event participants should actively organize and implement rescue efforts, but do not undertake any legal or economic liability for the accident itself. The museum does not undertake civil or joint liability for the personal safety of event participants.

Article V

During the event, event participants should respect the order of the museum event and ensure the safety of the museum site, the artworks in displays, exhibitions, and collections, and the derived products. If an event causes any degree of loss or damage to the museum site, space, artworks, or derived products due to an individual, persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for losses. The event participant must negotiate and provide compensation according to the relevant legal statutes and museum rules. The museum may sue for legal and financial liability.

Article VI

Event participants will participate in the event under the guidance of museum staff and event leaders or instructors and must correctly use the painting tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities provided for the event. If a participant causes injury or harm to him/herself or others while using the painting tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities, or causes the damage or destruction of the tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities, the event participant must undertake all related liability and provide compensation for the financial losses. Persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for personal accidents.

CAFA Art Museum Portraiture Rights Licensing Agreement

According to The Advertising Law of the People’s Republic of China, The General Principles of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China, and The Provisional Opinions of the Supreme People’s Court on Some Issues Related to the Full Implementation of the General Principles of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China, and upon friendly negotiation, Party A and Party B have arrived at the following agreement regarding the use of works bearing Party A’s image in order to clarify the rights and obligations of the portrait licenser (Party A) and the user (Party B):

I. General Provisions

(1) Party A is the portraiture rights holder in this agreement. Party A voluntarily licenses its portraiture rights to Party B for the purposes stipulated in this agreement and permitted by law.

(2) Party B (CAFA Art Museum) is a specialized, international modern art museum. CAFA Art Museum keeps pace with the times, and works to create an open, free, and academic space and atmosphere for positive interaction with groups, corporations, institutions, artists, and visitors. With CAFA’s academic research as a foundation, the museum plans multi-disciplinary exhibitions, conferences, and public education events with participants from around the world, providing a platform for exchange, learning, and exhibition for CAFA’s students and instructors, artists from around the world, and the general public. As a public institution, the primary purposes of CAFA Art Museum’s public education events are academic and beneficial to society.

(3) Party B will photograph all CAFA Public Education Department events for Party A.

II. Content, Forms of Use, and Geographical Scope of Use

(1) Content. The content of images taken by Party B bearing Party A’s likeness include: ① CAFA Art Museum ② CAFA campus ③ All events planned or executed by the CAFAM Public Education Department.

(2) Forms of Use. For use in CAFA’s publications, products with CDs, and promotional materials.

(3) Geographical Scope of Use

The applicable geographic scope is global.

The media in which the portraiture may be used encompasses any media that does not infringe upon Party A’s portraiture rights (e.g., magazines and the internet).

III. Term of Portraiture Rights Use

Use in perpetuity.

IV. Licensing Fees

The fees for images bearing Party A’s likeness will be undertaken by Party B.

After completion, Party B does not need to pay any fees to Party A for images bearing Party A’s likeness.

Additional Terms

(1) All matters not discussed in this agreement shall be resolved through friendly negotiation between both parties. Both parties may then sign a supplementary agreement, provided it does not violate any laws or regulations.

(2) This agreement comes into effect on the date that it is signed (sealed) and the relevant boxes are selected by Party A and Party B.

(3) This agreement exists in paper and electronic forms. The paper form is made in duplicate, with Party A and Party B each retaining one copy with the same legal efficacy.

Event participants implicitly accept and undertake all the obligations stated in this agreement. Those who do not consent will be seen as abandoning the right to participate in this event. Before participating in this event, please speak to your family members to obtain their consent and inform them of this disclaimer. After participants sign/check the required box, participants and their families will be seen as having read and agreed to these terms.

I have carefully read and agree to the above provisions.

Group Visit Agreement
and Statement

CAFA Art Museum Publication Authorization Agreement

I fully agree to CAFA Art Museum (CAFAM) submitting to CAFA for publication the images, pictures, texts, writings, and event products (such as works created during participation in workshops) related to me from my participation in public events (including museum member events) organized by the CAFA Art Museum Public Education Department. CAFA can publish these materials by electronic, web, or other digital means, and I hereby agree to be included in the China Knowledge Resource Bank, the CAFA Database, the CAFA Art Museum Database, and related data, documentation, and filing institutions and platforms. Regarding their use in CAFA and dissemination on the internet, I agree to make use of these rights according to the stated Rules.

CAFA Art Museum Event Safety Disclaimer

Article I

This event was organized on the principles of fairness, impartiality, and voluntary participation and withdrawal. Participants undertake all risk and liability for themselves. All events have risks, and participants must be aware of the risks related to their chosen event.

Article II

Event participants must abide by the laws and regulations of the People’s Republic of China, as well as moral and ethical norms. All participants must demonstrate good character, respect for others, friendship, and a willingness to help others.

Article III

Event participants should be adults (people 18 years or older with full civil legal capacity). Underage persons must be accompanied by an adult.

Article IV

Event participants undertake all liability for their personal safety during the event, and event participants are encouraged to purchase personal safety insurance. Should an accident occur during an event, persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for the accident, but both have the obligation to provide assistance. Event participants should actively organize and implement rescue efforts, but do not undertake any legal or economic liability for the accident itself. The museum does not undertake civil or joint liability for the personal safety of event participants.

Article V

During the event, event participants should respect the order of the museum event and ensure the safety of the museum site, the artworks in displays, exhibitions, and collections, and the derived products. If an event causes any degree of loss or damage to the museum site, space, artworks, or derived products due to an individual, persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for losses. The event participant must negotiate and provide compensation according to the relevant legal statutes and museum rules. The museum may sue for legal and financial liability.

Article VI

Event participants will participate in the event under the guidance of museum staff and event leaders or instructors and must correctly use the painting tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities provided for the event. If a participant causes injury or harm to him/herself or others while using the painting tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities, or causes the damage or destruction of the tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities, the event participant must undertake all related liability and provide compensation for the financial losses. Persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for personal accidents.

CAFA Art Museum Portraiture Rights Licensing Agreement

According to The Advertising Law of the People’s Republic of China, The General Principles of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China, and The Provisional Opinions of the Supreme People’s Court on Some Issues Related to the Full Implementation of the General Principles of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China, and upon friendly negotiation, Party A and Party B have arrived at the following agreement regarding the use of works bearing Party A’s image in order to clarify the rights and obligations of the portrait licenser (Party A) and the user (Party B):

I. General Provisions

(1) Party A is the portraiture rights holder in this agreement. Party A voluntarily licenses its portraiture rights to Party B for the purposes stipulated in this agreement and permitted by law.

(2) Party B (CAFA Art Museum) is a specialized, international modern art museum. CAFA Art Museum keeps pace with the times, and works to create an open, free, and academic space and atmosphere for positive interaction with groups, corporations, institutions, artists, and visitors. With CAFA’s academic research as a foundation, the museum plans multi-disciplinary exhibitions, conferences, and public education events with participants from around the world, providing a platform for exchange, learning, and exhibition for CAFA’s students and instructors, artists from around the world, and the general public. As a public institution, the primary purposes of CAFA Art Museum’s public education events are academic and beneficial to society.

(3) Party B will photograph all CAFA Public Education Department events for Party A.

II. Content, Forms of Use, and Geographical Scope of Use

(1) Content. The content of images taken by Party B bearing Party A’s likeness include: ① CAFA Art Museum ② CAFA campus ③ All events planned or executed by the CAFAM Public Education Department.

(2) Forms of Use. For use in CAFA’s publications, products with CDs, and promotional materials.

(3) Geographical Scope of Use

The applicable geographic scope is global.

The media in which the portraiture may be used encompasses any media that does not infringe upon Party A’s portraiture rights (e.g., magazines and the internet).

III. Term of Portraiture Rights Use

Use in perpetuity.

IV. Licensing Fees

The fees for images bearing Party A’s likeness will be undertaken by Party B.

After completion, Party B does not need to pay any fees to Party A for images bearing Party A’s likeness.

Additional Terms

(1) All matters not discussed in this agreement shall be resolved through friendly negotiation between both parties. Both parties may then sign a supplementary agreement, provided it does not violate any laws or regulations.

(2) This agreement comes into effect on the date that it is signed (sealed) and the relevant boxes are selected by Party A and Party B.

(3) This agreement exists in paper and electronic forms. The paper form is made in duplicate, with Party A and Party B each retaining one copy with the same legal efficacy.

Event participants implicitly accept and undertake all the obligations stated in this agreement. Those who do not consent will be seen as abandoning the right to participate in this event. Before participating in this event, please speak to your family members to obtain their consent and inform them of this disclaimer. After participants sign/check the required box, participants and their families will be seen as having read and agreed to these terms.

I have carefully read and agree to the above provisions.

Group Visit Agreement
and Statement

CAFA Art Museum Publication Authorization Agreement

I fully agree to CAFA Art Museum (CAFAM) submitting to CAFA for publication the images, pictures, texts, writings, and event products (such as works created during participation in workshops) related to me from my participation in public events (including museum member events) organized by the CAFA Art Museum Public Education Department. CAFA can publish these materials by electronic, web, or other digital means, and I hereby agree to be included in the China Knowledge Resource Bank, the CAFA Database, the CAFA Art Museum Database, and related data, documentation, and filing institutions and platforms. Regarding their use in CAFA and dissemination on the internet, I agree to make use of these rights according to the stated Rules.

CAFA Art Museum Event Safety Disclaimer

Article I

This event was organized on the principles of fairness, impartiality, and voluntary participation and withdrawal. Participants undertake all risk and liability for themselves. All events have risks, and participants must be aware of the risks related to their chosen event.

Article II

Event participants must abide by the laws and regulations of the People’s Republic of China, as well as moral and ethical norms. All participants must demonstrate good character, respect for others, friendship, and a willingness to help others.

Article III

Event participants should be adults (people 18 years or older with full civil legal capacity). Underage persons must be accompanied by an adult.

Article IV

Event participants undertake all liability for their personal safety during the event, and event participants are encouraged to purchase personal safety insurance. Should an accident occur during an event, persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for the accident, but both have the obligation to provide assistance. Event participants should actively organize and implement rescue efforts, but do not undertake any legal or economic liability for the accident itself. The museum does not undertake civil or joint liability for the personal safety of event participants.

Article V

During the event, event participants should respect the order of the museum event and ensure the safety of the museum site, the artworks in displays, exhibitions, and collections, and the derived products. If an event causes any degree of loss or damage to the museum site, space, artworks, or derived products due to an individual, persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for losses. The event participant must negotiate and provide compensation according to the relevant legal statutes and museum rules. The museum may sue for legal and financial liability.

Article VI

Event participants will participate in the event under the guidance of museum staff and event leaders or instructors and must correctly use the painting tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities provided for the event. If a participant causes injury or harm to him/herself or others while using the painting tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities, or causes the damage or destruction of the tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities, the event participant must undertake all related liability and provide compensation for the financial losses. Persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for personal accidents.

CAFA Art Museum Portraiture Rights Licensing Agreement

According to The Advertising Law of the People’s Republic of China, The General Principles of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China, and The Provisional Opinions of the Supreme People’s Court on Some Issues Related to the Full Implementation of the General Principles of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China, and upon friendly negotiation, Party A and Party B have arrived at the following agreement regarding the use of works bearing Party A’s image in order to clarify the rights and obligations of the portrait licenser (Party A) and the user (Party B):

I. General Provisions

(1) Party A is the portraiture rights holder in this agreement. Party A voluntarily licenses its portraiture rights to Party B for the purposes stipulated in this agreement and permitted by law.

(2) Party B (CAFA Art Museum) is a specialized, international modern art museum. CAFA Art Museum keeps pace with the times, and works to create an open, free, and academic space and atmosphere for positive interaction with groups, corporations, institutions, artists, and visitors. With CAFA’s academic research as a foundation, the museum plans multi-disciplinary exhibitions, conferences, and public education events with participants from around the world, providing a platform for exchange, learning, and exhibition for CAFA’s students and instructors, artists from around the world, and the general public. As a public institution, the primary purposes of CAFA Art Museum’s public education events are academic and beneficial to society.

(3) Party B will photograph all CAFA Public Education Department events for Party A.

II. Content, Forms of Use, and Geographical Scope of Use

(1) Content. The content of images taken by Party B bearing Party A’s likeness include: ① CAFA Art Museum ② CAFA campus ③ All events planned or executed by the CAFAM Public Education Department.

(2) Forms of Use. For use in CAFA’s publications, products with CDs, and promotional materials.

(3) Geographical Scope of Use

The applicable geographic scope is global.

The media in which the portraiture may be used encompasses any media that does not infringe upon Party A’s portraiture rights (e.g., magazines and the internet).

III. Term of Portraiture Rights Use

Use in perpetuity.

IV. Licensing Fees

The fees for images bearing Party A’s likeness will be undertaken by Party B.

After completion, Party B does not need to pay any fees to Party A for images bearing Party A’s likeness.

Additional Terms

(1) All matters not discussed in this agreement shall be resolved through friendly negotiation between both parties. Both parties may then sign a supplementary agreement, provided it does not violate any laws or regulations.

(2) This agreement comes into effect on the date that it is signed (sealed) and the relevant boxes are selected by Party A and Party B.

(3) This agreement exists in paper and electronic forms. The paper form is made in duplicate, with Party A and Party B each retaining one copy with the same legal efficacy.

Event participants implicitly accept and undertake all the obligations stated in this agreement. Those who do not consent will be seen as abandoning the right to participate in this event. Before participating in this event, please speak to your family members to obtain their consent and inform them of this disclaimer. After participants sign/check the required box, participants and their families will be seen as having read and agreed to these terms.

I have carefully read and agree to the above provisions.

Event Booking Form

Name:
Gender
Phone:
Valid Certificate: Identity Card
ID Number:
Email:

Reminder:

Hello! Thank you for participating in our public education event and we are looking forward to seeing you! If you cannot attend the event on time, please send a text message to 13261936837 (Liang) to cancel the booking. Please be aware that your eligibility for using the quick booking may be affected If you cancel the booking more than three times. Thank you for your understanding!