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国际视野 | 北川富朗:雷安德罗·埃利希的冒险...

2021-01-21 7 read

雷安德罗·埃利希是一位试图跳出画廊和美术馆等均质空间的艺术家。突破以20世纪的城市高层建筑群为象征的均质空间,无疑是一项大胆的挑战。他在当代的角色以及受欢迎的原因正根植于此。
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曹庆晖:谈“胡一川艺术与文献展”的主题与实现...

2020-12-23 27 read

谈“胡一川艺术与文献展”的主题与实现文|曹庆晖展览策展人、中央美术学院美术史系教授《站在人生的前线——胡一川艺术与文献展》最终在2020年11月于中央美术学院美术馆开幕,很不容易。在此就展览的构思与想到的问题做些交代,既为观众理解展览的主题与内容提供导引,同时也就一些认识就教于方家。展览现场一、“自觉”与“站在人生的前线”2020年是胡一川诞辰110周年。胡一川(1910—2000)是福建永定人,是我国20世纪三四十年代新兴版画运动、五六十年代革命历史主题油画创作和高等美术学校建设的先驱之一。1950年中央美术学院成立后,胡一川任党总支书记,与院长徐悲鸿携手合作,共建新中国美术的园地。1953年他受命南下在武汉创建中南美术专科学校,任党委书记、校长。1958年中南美术专科学校南迁广州改名广州美术学院后,他任院长兼党委第一书记。为此,中央美术学院、广州美术学院在他诞辰110周年之际联合举办展览,以志纪念。1950年代的胡一川(广州美术学院提供)1951年,中央美术学院聘请胡一川为教授兼专修科主任聘书(广州美术学院提供)1950年4月1日,胡一川在中央美术学院成立大会讲话手稿(广州美术学院提供)1954年,中央人民政府高等教育部部长杨秀峰任命胡一川为中南美术专科学校校长任命书(广州美术学院提供)1959年,广东省人民委员会省长陈郁任命胡一川为广州美术学院院长任命书(广州美术学院提供)展览的工作方向一开始就非常明确,即纪念回顾展,而怎样把纪念回顾展的主题提炼出来,是首先要考虑的问题。胡一川所作《到前线去》《牛犋变工队》《开镣》《前夜》等在中国现代美术史上深入人心的风格与精神,胡一川研究所常年开展的对他作品与资料的系统整理与专门编研建立起来的研究基础——包括全部作品、图像、资料等数据和口述积累,以及公开出版的《胡一川诞辰100周年研究展》《红色艺术现场——胡一川日记(1937—1949)》《胡一川油画集》《胡一川版画速写集》《胡一川艺术研究文集》《胡一川与新中国专题研究文集》等成果——无疑是认识胡一川的必由之路。深入其中,胡一川思想和创作上的“前线品质”给人以热烈而积极的触动。《到前线去》,胡一川,1932年,上海,黑白木刻25x33cm,中国美术馆藏《前夜(组织游击小组开展广泛的游击队)》胡一川,1939年,山西,黑白木刻11.5cm×11.7cm(广州美术学院提供)《牛犋变工队》,胡一川,1943年延安,套色木刻11.7cm×19cm(广州美术学院提供)《开镣》,胡一川,1950年,北京,布面油画174cmx244cm,中国国家博物馆藏读胡一川的日记,可以注意到,从青年时代开始,思想意志上的胡一川即无时不在地诫勉着身体行动上的胡一川,以致于“你应该”怎样怎样、如何如何成为他日记中的高频语句。而他的思想和行动也都表明,他是一个高度自觉的人!这种思想与行动高度统一的自觉正是他“前线品质”的内核。在“七七事变”后勇毅投身抗敌救亡的民族解放洪流前,左翼木刻青年胡一川就不断地警醒着自己走出小圈子,要求自己要“勇敢地跑到时代的前头当旗手”。他说:你应该勇敢地跑到时代的前头当旗手,而不应该握着时代的尾巴。你应该在有意义有前途的事业上去挣扎去追求,千万不要选择一时的安闲啊!更不能受了一点障碍就打破了你的去路啊!你应该经常有系统的研究过去历史上所有经验,去认识目前的现实,更要精密地去推测将来必然要产生的新社会,要这样才能建立和确定你合法的行动。你千万不要过于沉醉和留恋于某一个圈子,你应该跟随时代的需要变换你的态度。你应该要从多方面去认识和理解某一个朝代为什么会黑暗,某一个朝代为什么会光明。你应该负起推动时代车轮的重任,而不是躲在后面拖着人家的尾巴。你应该随时注意这是什么时候了。你应该把雄壮的歌声唱给大众听。要勇当旗手,要冲破障碍,要推动时代,要追求光明,要高声歌唱,这不是夸夸其谈的说教,而是写给自己的鞭策,这是多么热情又高尚的思想觉悟和自我要求!1937年27岁的胡一川能有这样的思想觉悟和自我要求,离不开哺育他的闽西山区对他吃苦进取的基因塑造,离不开“五四”新文化运动思想解放的启蒙和母校国立艺术院“创造时代艺术”的启迪,特别是离不开鲁迅先生对他发起的幼小的“一八艺社”所具有的 “清醒的意识和坚强的努力”的支持,还有,也离不开他在左翼美术运动中身陷囹圄、牺牲恋人对他意志品质的磨炼。1939年1月,鲁艺木刻工作团在山西泌县铜川中学举办木刻展览时的合影。左起:彦涵,华山,胡一川,罗工柳,胡一川为鲁艺木刻工作团团长,到敌后晋东南,冀南等地开展木刻工作。(广州美术学院提供)1942年5月,延安文艺座谈会(广州美术学院提供)“假若不跟时代跑,做一个前卫或是一个有力的帮手,你还有什么用啊!”胡一川在日记里这样写道。在“七七事变”后严峻的民族危亡之际,胡一川决计“跑到炮火连天、冲锋肉搏的血阵里”。他从福建奔赴延安,进入鲁艺;率领木刻工作团深入敌后,寻找“大时代的真理”;1942年5月,胡一川应邀参加延安文艺座谈会,并结合他在敌后的工作实践写了一篇《谈美术上的普及与提高工作》的预备发言。显然,经过敌后工作,面对文艺前途,他已成长为善于思考和总结的党的优秀美术干部。抗战胜利后,胡一川随华北联合大学、华北大学转战,最终带着坚持不懈的创作志愿和热情跑进新中国和新时代,在北京、武汉、广州,投身于社会主义文艺创作和美术教育的新天地。这一切,都与胡一川自觉于时代巨变的需要、自觉于民族国家的召唤、自觉于自我价值的实现的思想觉悟息息相关。1941年2月5日,他曾经写道:钢是铁在熔炉里炼出来的。如果是一个阶级的战士,他是敢于在困难的池子里游泳,向一切困难投降是一个时代的弱者。应该提起你最高的勇气,担负起时代的困难担子。木刻工作者的岗位应该和其他的阶级先锋队一样站在最前线。可以说,自觉是胡一川人生价值中最可宝贵的部分,也是促使他跑到时代前头去,到进步文艺事业的前线、到抗战救亡烽火的前线、到新中国美术创作和美育建设前线的内驱力。1953年胡一川南下前,中央美院同事为他送行后留影(广州美术学院提供)1958年6月,胡一川在武汉中南美专作中南美专迁校动员报告(广州美术学院提供)但,有一点也非常清楚,胡一川自始至终更愿意将时间和精力用在以民族解放和国家建设事业为基础的业务工作和创作发展上,而不是放弃业务和创作,成为一个专职领导干部。可是胡一川心胸坦荡,为人正派,政治可靠,态度稳重,工作热情,考虑周到的品质,在急需干部的革命队伍里往往被看重和赏识,因之也被委以更多的责任和担子,相应地也对他的创作欲望和业务发展产生不小的影响,这使他颇感苦闷,其中的矛盾也成为纠结他一生的心病。早在1944年5月任职鲁艺美术系党支部书记的胡一川,就曾给鲁艺院长周扬写信倾诉过这方面的苦闷,结果当然难如其所愿。他曾在日记里表示,“我感觉到唯一解救自己的办法,就是利用一切空余的时间专心于创作上,以不断顽强的努力争取在艺术上的进步”。到1953年胡一川受命辞别中央美术学院去武汉组建中南美术专科学校,也是“我好多题材都是北方的,能不能我不去”的请求落空而和战友洒泪南行。“党决定我去,我就服从决定,到那里去好好工作”。而当完成创作与行政工作发生矛盾时,他只能强行停下创作,转而投身工作。学习文件,理解政策,开会布置,组织动员,以身作则,率先垂范。他在日记里说,“我经常用双手按着胸口,因创作欲经常象火山一样要爆发啊!”。这样看来,自觉的意义在胡一川这里不只包括主动积极、全心投入、“到前线去”的艺术创作努力,也包括服从要求、约束自我创作欲望而“被推到前线”的克己奉公,这两方面辩证统一所造就的创业事实与精神品质—— “站在人生的前线”,即是这次展览主题的由来。二、胡一川艺术与文献展的“三庭五眼”本着上述思考,更进一步结合胡一川的艺术道路和胡一川研究所的藏品实际,深感若只凭胡一川业务所向的木刻和油画呈现他站在人生前线的事实与品质,既不完整,也不符合实际。确实,胡一川担任领导职务,特别是1949年后长期担任美术学院领导的工作,使他付出了大量本该用于创作的时间,以致于他的作品保有量与一般学院艺术家的基本规模之间有落差,但因此他也积存了可观的为勤勉工作花时间写的讲话、信函和其他材料,而这些文献资料不仅能够证明组织对他“在大的运动中表现积极负责,能力强,办法多,有一定理论水平”的评价,而且也能够细化我们对中国现代美术史上某些大事的认识。因为他是一个站在前线的人,所以他的工作就是前线工作的具体反映,而这些工作材料无异于前线战报和历史档案。实际上,他也早已有这方面的资料被国家博物馆征集为文物和档案。作为110周年诞辰纪念展览,任何人都不会对这批从前未及整理和公开的资料置若罔闻,关键是如何将其妥善地用于展览。此外,展览的落脚点是人生,那么在工作、创作等事业追求之外,挖掘胡一川的情感、家庭以及师友同事间的往来交往,也是主题的应有之义。在这方面,胡一川有足够惊天地、泣鬼神的人生经历和情感,被精心地保留在书信、照片、实物等文献和遗物中。因此,在作品之外,充分调用文献、遗物等相关材料,将其与胡一川的作品等量齐观,以美术馆+档案馆的方式呈现站在人生前线的胡一川,是最恰当也是最应该的选择。胡一川艺术与文献展的内容标题也就是这么来的。无疑,这在不小的程度上将是一个挑战文献处理和观众阅读的学习型纪念回顾展。展览现场根据中央美术学院美术馆二层B展厅的格局以及如上考量,在胡一川研究所的倾力支持以及向团队、学院的多次阐述和汇报中,最终落实展览主题和内容的“三庭五眼”得以明确如下。所谓三庭,即展览现场的前庭起步区、中庭转角区和后庭结束区。前庭起步区是整个展览的开场引言区,主要解决的是主题带入问题。中庭转角区是美术馆空间由开阔转向狭长的直角转折区,主要是从视觉上要给展览的主题内容由作品为主转转向文献为主提出合情合理的转变理由,以形成中庭转角区为界,之前为作品主展区、之后为文献主展区的逻辑。后庭结束区既是展览的终场,也是展览的压轴,在这里要处理胡一川艺术事业之外的生活与生死,是展览主题在人生叙事与情感升华两方面的共同需要。由此三庭,具体串联以下五方面内容:1.胡一川这个同志——大家所了解的胡一川2-1.站在人生的前线——胡一川的木刻与文献2-2.站在人生的前线——胡一川的油画与文献2-3.站在人生的前线——胡一川的美育与文献3.爱与生死的咏叹——胡一川的苦难与幸福位于前庭起步区的展览内容“胡一川这个同志——大家所了解的胡一川”,主要选编胡一川研究所近年来开展的有关胡一川艺术人生的口述调查视频资料19部,胡一川从“一八艺社”到“送别江丰”等不同历史时期的集体合影27张,依时代顺序和展线延伸,穿插编排,并配合展柜中的胡一川1993年自撰年表手稿、胡一川遗存日记(全本)、罗工柳在“胡一川从艺六十五周年作品展”研讨会的回顾讲话以及古元、迟轲等人评论胡一川艺术的文章,试图从口述与文献、视频与遗物等多方面,向观众具体地、生动地介绍胡一川这个人。其中,最为完整的文献当属全本胡一川日记,而最了解胡一川的回忆当属罗工柳的讲话,内里有诸多问题和细节很值得深入思考和研究。而最反套路的内容呈现是选用胡一川1993年自撰年表的手稿实物,彻底放弃占用展线铺陈艺术家年表的惯常做法。在大家众说之外,展览也安排胡一川“发声”,在视频照片混编的墙面上特别选择了胡一川1937年日记中的三句话,以反映他对自我的要求和评价。其中一句是“我的内心是血,所以我不能变为钢铁,但我的意愿又那么坚,所以我的心也绝对不容易软”。展览现场 胡一川爱好音乐,会小提琴、吉他和钢琴,喜欢歌唱,晚年在病房还用法语给女儿吟唱当年在上海街头携手女友参加飞行集会高唱的马赛曲。青年,奋争,老人,病房,马赛曲,这些片段如蒙太奇的叠加,不能不令人感到一代人的精神奋勇和岁月沧桑。展览为此以吉他舒缓变调的国际歌演绎,营造沉思回忆的氛围,构建历史与情感的穿越,试图在烘托开场前庭起步区的同时,继续引导观众拉开第二部分主展区的帷幕。展览现场 主展区“站在时代的前线”包括三方面内容。以中庭转角区为界,之前为木刻与文献、油画与文献的内容,之后为美育与文献的内容,前后逻辑转化以胡一川故居—研究所的景观照片联系和实现。故居—研究所作为一种视觉元素出现,一是给观众具体联系胡一川生活与创作的私人空间,以丰富对胡一川的认识;二是强调研究所在资料整理与研究上发挥的作用。就此预示故居—景观照片之前,展览更多地以作品与文献展现艺术与时代的紧密联系,之后展览将更多地将文献作品化,进入胡一川的私人空间和内心世界。“站在人生的前线——胡一川的木刻与文献”,以“一八艺社”成员汪占非2003年92岁的一份工工整整的手稿《回忆胡一川同志》开启,这份手稿的回忆上承前庭起步区的众说胡一川,下启胡一川参加左翼美术运动的章节,是一份实现展览区位内容转换、重点在于回忆“一八艺社”活动的原始文献。在此之后,以胡一川1950年代手稿《左翼美术运动》、1991年手稿《回忆鲁迅先生与“一八艺社”》,国家博物馆藏1941年《敌后木刻观摩会》《敌后木刻观摩会座谈会》记录,胡一川1942年5月14日手稿《谈美术上的普及与提高工作》为核心,分别编排相应的木刻作品和剪报图像。这就要求观众在借助手机扫码,释读手稿文献的基础上,实现上述文献与作品的逻辑关联。这一部分特别重视的将搜集在胡一川手中的鲁艺木刻工作团作品与国家博物馆藏八路军副总司令彭德怀致函胡一川的亲笔表彰信、延安对敌后木刻的几次座谈记录稿悉数陈列,以为学界完整了解当年木刻工作团的创作与评价提供研究条件。另外难得一见的是,展览不仅陈列了胡一川的木刻代表作《牛犋变工队》《不让敌人通过》,而且还同框陈列了两件作品的木刻原板,并与胡一川收藏的解放社出版《毛泽东同志在延安文艺座谈会上的讲话》以及胡一川1942年5月14日手稿《谈美术上的普及与提高工作》相配合,从而为了解文艺座谈会前后胡一川的创作与思考提供了最真实明确的物料和读本。《饥民》,胡一川,1930年,杭州黑白木刻,尺寸不详,刊于《一八艺社1931年习作展览画会画册》(广州美术学院提供)《军民合作》,胡一川,1940年,山西,水印套色木刻,36.8cm×32.3cm,中国国家博物馆藏《魔鬼手下壮丁》,胡一川,1938年,延安,黑白木刻,8.25cm×10.5cm(广州美术学院提供)《芦沟桥抗战》,胡一川,1938年,延安,黑白木刻,15.7cm×20.1cm(广州美术学院提供)胡一川在1941年2月5日的日记中写道:“钢是从铁的熔炉里炼出来的。如果是一个阶级的战士,他是敢于困难的池子里作游泳,向一切困难投降是一个时代的弱者。应该提起你最高的勇气,担负起时代的困难担子。木刻工作者的岗位应该和其他的阶级先锋队一样站在最前线。”这段话明确反映了胡一川当时的思想站位,也可以说是他从上海到延安、从左翼到革命这一人生选择与发展历程的说明。为此,展览将其植入墙体,用以醒题和弘扬。“站在人生的前线——胡一川艺术与文献”以主题创作、遗失或未完成作品草图及风景写生等构成。这部分内容由胡一川1943年6月1日写下的一段话引带而出。这段话说:我准备以我的全力用艺术的表现方式去赞美新的世界,新的事物,以我所能做到的主观力量去歌颂光明。以照相的方式不能表达出我内心对新社会新事物的热爱,以照相的方式也不能表达出我对于旧社会和敌人的憎恨。你千万不要以照相的标准来评价一切艺术作品。主题创作包括《开镣》(1950)、《前夜》(1961)、《挖地道》(1974)、《转战前夕》(1977)、《铁窗下》(1981)、《见矿》(1994)等作品与草图,以及遗失的《红军过雪山》(1959)、《落网》(1963)等作品的图像和草图。其中,《开镣》是胡一川任职中央美术学院时的油画成名代表作,后被中国革命博物馆借去陈列,这也是该作在1952年被博物馆用于长期陈列后第一次回到中央美术学院。在此,希望观众能以《开镣》领衔的这批油画作品、草图以及写生为对象,还原历史情境,具体认识和讨论中国现代美术史上所谓“土油画”“风景即人”的理解和评价问题。《前夜》,胡一川,1961年,广州,布面油画,140cm×181.5cm,中国美术馆藏《挖地道》,胡一川,1974年,广州布面油画,146cm×112cm,广州美术学院美术馆藏《转折前夕》,胡一川,1977年,广州布面油画,131cm×170cm(广州美术学院提供)《见矿》,胡一川,1994年,广州布面油画,140cm×186cm(广州美术学院提供)《列宁住过的草棚》1960年,莫斯科纸板油画,35cm×44.5cm(广州美术学院提供)《我的故乡》1983年,福建永定中川布纹纸油画,52.8cm×73.5cm(广州美术学院提供)《石佛寺》1982年,作于浙江布纹纸,53.5cm×75.5cm(广州美术学院提供)《金川镍矿》1986年,作于甘肃布纹纸,59cm×84cm(广州美术学院提供)《速写激流(岷江放木)》1956年,作于四川26cm×19cm(广州美术学院提供)“站在人生的前线——胡一川的美育与文献”位于美术馆特有的独立空间玻璃橱窗精品厅内,主要通过胡一川的手稿、书信,串讲他从解放区到新中国从事革命美术运动、美术教育建设的历程。展示的重要文献有胡一川解放区时期手稿《中国新兴木刻运动简史》《鲁艺木刻工作团在敌后》《谈鲁艺木刻工作团的工作经验教训》等,新中国时期手稿《国立美术学院党组第一次汇报》《中央美术学院成立大会讲话》《中央美术学院合并后情况报告》,以及胡一川就中南美术专科学校建校与妻子黄君珊的通信和《学校搬迁广州的有关问题讲话》等。另外还有一组反映胡一川思想波动、想搞业务、想回北京而与周扬、蔡若虹等人的通信,特别真实地呈现了胡一川作为一个文艺工作者所希望的前线担当。由于展览落地在中央美术学院美术馆,所以这部分手稿更突出胡一川与中央美术学院创建的关系,为此特别编辑了中央美术学院藏毛泽东亲笔“国立美术学院”复制品居于展场中心,与此相对应的是胡一川晚年所书《实事求是》,用以表示胡一川这批手稿真实反映了他从事领导工作的勤勉和苦闷。这些手稿多为原件,大小不一,字迹密密麻麻,笔迹时清时草,但碍于展厅实际,只能置于玻璃橱窗内80cm深处,并不方便观众逐字阅读原件。但在目睹原件的同时,借助手机扫码释读文字,应该是有兴趣的读者还能够接受的展览方式。展览现场在进入“站在人生的前线——胡一川的美育与文献”前,中庭转角区及走廊沿线设置了与胡一川故居—研究所有生活逻辑关系的、更多突出胡一川个人、家庭以及业务自修的内容。其中,胡一川临摹国外画家和中国同仁的油画头像与胡一川讲座记录《漫谈油画艺术》,既承接主展区的油画与文献,又以临摹的专门组合拉开与主展区油画创作与写生的距离并突出了胡一川在家自修的努力。而重要的聘书、徽章与木刻刀和木刻藏书等实物构成的遗物展柜,胡一川1993年手稿《我的写照》以及胡一川个人、家人、友人的照片视频PPT等内容的组合,目的还是结构出一个属于家的概念的胡一川的私人空间。展览现场在这个私人空间的深处,是位于后庭结束区的“爱与生死的咏叹——胡一川的苦难与幸福”。在结构上,这部分内容呼应着前庭起步区的“胡一川这个同志——大家所了解的胡一川”;在主题上,这部分内容是通过胡一川54页手稿《我的回忆》的悉数打开,总带出与祖母、母亲、恋人夏朋、妻子黄君珊四位女性的不同情感。试图通过回忆、遗物、照片、信件等一系列材料的编辑组合,讲述胡一川祖母之严、母亲之怜、恋人之殇、妻子之贞的故事;在感情上,这部分内容涉及胡一川隐匿最深最跌宕的个人情感,是这个展览最柔软的部分。在展览最后压轴的4分钟视频里,专门以大海、黄君珊与胡一川的两封通信片段、胡一川黄君珊在青年和老年时期的两张合影以及字幕和配乐,告诉观众恩爱一生的胡一川黄君珊夫妇对于死后的选择是不立墓,没有碑,而是将灵灰合一,撒向伶仃洋。至此,希望在浪涛和鸥鸣的自然合声中,引发观众在感叹胡一川的苦难与幸福之际,直面生死的问题和价值。《站在人生的前线——胡一川艺术与文献展》展览终场视频三、“站在人生的前线”之外《站在人生的前线——胡一川艺术与文献展》,是近几年来我为中央美术学院已故著名艺术家策划的第8个展览。这些展览的工作基础和实施条件各不相同,而但凡遇有工作基础和实施条件较好的机会,都尽可能抓住时机,调度作品、资料,以呈现出艺术家波澜的艺术人生和艺术作风为第一要务。知人论世,因人而异,是我策划这一类展览时的基本要求和工作目标,因此也就加大了对理解艺术家的文献需求、占有和利用。而随着社会和家属对艺术家艺术和精神遗产进行整理研究的意识提高和行动落实,基础整理工作的进步也越来越能够满足策展人调度的需要。此次疫情期间,跨地举办纪念胡一川的展览,与胡一川研究所能在策划期间及时给予所需各种分类材料密不可分。胡一川个人的艺术资料保存比较全面,研究所的整理也切合实际需要,这对于了解和认识胡一川以及他从事的艺术事业和经历的社会生活有决定性意义,因而无论哪个策展人做展览都不会对这难得的收藏置若罔闻。但是,作为展览,这些文献资料利用到什么程度却是一个难题。一般情况下,展览利用文献资料的意义多在于观览文献实物本身,即将文献实物作为一种特别的说明或者特殊的纪念处理,而其记载的具体内容往往仅止于局部提示或者就不打开。具体就胡一川展览而言,文献资料在展览中的使用是为了尽可能完整表述他在事业、工作和家庭方面的经历和精神,而这种经历和精神直接关联着中国现代美术与教育的动脉,因此相对完整地展阅具体内容就比将之作为某种个人纪念物更具有现实意义。基于此,我主张把重要的手稿或原件悉数打开,以供阅览,尽可能形成一个档案馆+美术馆的交互阅读和研究空间,这也应该可以视为在展览策划方面与十年前举办胡一川诞辰100周年研究展最为明确的进展。更有利的是,随着智能手机扫码功能的开发和普及,为观众提供释读原稿的文字而不必占用大量展线已完全不成问题,但因此确实也会给图像时代的一般观众带来巨大的阅读压力。对此,我给自己的解释是,读不读是观众的意愿和权利,但作为展览有义务把呈现的文献史料尽可能艺术地、充分地展示出来,目的是在于满足确定的观众群体——专家学者和学习艺术创作与史论的学生,而非普通观众——在研究和学习上的需要,而这其实正是学院美术馆和其他美术馆在观众定位和美育对象上应有的差别。展览现场随着20世纪艺术家个案的展览研究在内部资料的不断整理和编研,普遍面对的是在基础工作达到相对完整的程度后如何进一步讨论的问题。以胡一川为例,这次回顾展因纪念诞辰的性质和需要,充分利用十年来在文献资料上的整理进展讲述胡一川的艺术人生,已表明胡一川在基础材料的整理上达到一定程度。2019年广州美术学院主办、肖珊珊策划《以“述”为引·胡一川六件经典作品的“现场”》能够以胡一川的作品切入历史现场,也是基础材料达到一定程度的反应。接下来,依托材料的积累和到位,做专题研究的展览应该是一种基本的选择,而且通过专题展览也能进一步丰富对材料的认识和储备。不过,仅止于研究所资料的内循环显然不能将研究向深广推进,这就需要通过几方面工作予以加强。其一是要加强胡一川研究与同代艺术家特别是与他艺术人生有交集的相关艺术家研究的资源交流,互通有无,资源共享,不断弥补对相关事件事实的了解和认识,填补空洞,从而进一步丰富对胡一川所处历史语境的认识,理解他在其中的经历、选择和经验,廓清他在实践与思想上的脉络与事实。其二是需要在比较开阔的现代艺术潮流与知识传播的国际视野中认识和理解胡一川及其同代人的艺术道路和作风形成。目前对胡一川艺术作风中“非主流”特色的理解虽然较之从前有所进展,但总体而言依旧与我们在跨文化比较研究视野下所知粗陋有关。这方面的突破可能应该更多地寄望于对胡一川以及交往密切的艺术家藏书研究,但形成解决问题的方法和路径一时也不可能一蹴而就。最后比较关键的是对于胡一川研究秉持的基本态度,应该是在事实层面上要讲求是,不能脱离胡一川追求“大时代的真理”这一根本,否则就不是胡一川;在阐述层面要讲开放,要充分理解胡一川追求“大时代的真理”的丰富性,否则也不是胡一川。文献整理的进展不仅体现在胡一川这里,也体现在与他同时代的其他艺术家那里,虽然各家在这方面的进展程度层次不同,但总体上的进步和需求还是直接促进了在更为丰富的历史细节里重新审视过往的研究意愿与方法的加强。如何在更扎实的史料基础上,更开放的艺术史视野和国际视野中研究胡一川以及与之同时代艺术家,将是一个引人入胜的课题。资料、视频及作品图片由主办方提供题图拍摄/肖珊珊 现场图/胡思辰展览信息百年辉煌·中央美术学院艺术名家广州美术学院·纪念胡一川诞辰110周年站在人生的前线——胡一川艺术与文献展Standing on the Front Line of Life——Hu Yichuan Art and Documentation Exhibition 主    办:中央美术学院 广州美术学院承    办:中央美术学院美术馆 广州美术学院美术馆支持单位:中国国家博物馆 中国美术家协会 中国美术馆展览时间:2020年11月18日-12月23日展览地点:中央美术学院美术馆二层B展厅
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重走现场 ——胡一川《红军过雪山》的创作过程...

2020-12-23 27 read

油画《红军过雪山》是胡一川为《中国人民解放军建军三十周年纪念美术展览会》所创作的大型历史画,也是胡一川南下组建中南美术专科学校后,第一幅重要的主题油画创作。我们从他留下来大量的速写、油画实地写生、创作手稿和日记、笔记中,都能感受到他对这幅作品的重视和创作热情。
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见证北平解放,用画笔记录家国新貌 |宋步云诞辰110周年纪念展...

2020-12-21 30 read

“云水襟怀——宋步云诞辰110周年纪念展”由中央美术学院主办,中央美术学院美术馆承办,展期将持续至12月27日。
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1950年的《开镣》与“美院” | “胡一川艺术与文献展”闭展倒计时...

2020-12-18 60 read

《开镣》一定是胡一川在中央美术学院最珍贵也最值得骄傲的记忆,贯穿其在美院所有经历并实践着他对新中国美术教育及美术创作的深刻思考,因此这次“回校”,对“胡一川”来说更加意义深远令人欣慰。
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“冲破难关”——胡一川的《攻城》与“解放”...

2020-12-16 43 read

钢是从铁的熔炉里炼出来的。 如果是一个阶级的战士,他是敢于在困难的池子里游泳,向一切困难投降是一个时代的弱者。 应该提起你最高的勇气,担负起时代的困难担子。 木刻工作者的岗位应该和其他的阶级先锋队一样站在最前线。——胡一川日记
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“艺”薄云天 | 宋步云烽烟岁月的人生印迹...

2020-12-15 36 read

“云水襟怀——宋步云诞辰110周年纪念展”由中央美术学院主办,中央美术学院美术馆承办,展期将持续至12月27日。该展览为“百年辉煌·中央美术学院艺术名家”系列展览项目之一,也是宋步云艺术作品与相关文献首次在中央美术学院展出。
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奔赴前线的“木刻轻骑队”——鲁艺木刻工作团...

2020-12-15 61 read

1938年11月7日,延安鲁艺的中央大礼堂内人声哗哗,这里正举行着一场由鲁迅木刻研究班主办的木刻展览会,展期为三天。参展作品为一百八十余幅纯木刻,参观人数达三千余人。此展览会按研究班的总负责人胡一川的形容,是一件“破天荒”的事情。
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李劲堃:写在“站在人生的前线——胡一川艺术与文献展”开展之际...

2020-12-10 48 read

胡一川先生是我国著名的版画家、油画家,在新兴木刻运动和主题性油画创作中成绩斐然,他的版画《到前线去》、油画《开镣》《前夜》等,皆是20世纪中国美术史上极具代表性和研究价值的作品。
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We=Link: Sideways...

2020-11-19 83 read

Written by ZHANG GaHistory often began on the periphery and the fringe and ended up sucked in by a centripetal pull, becoming once again the story of the core. It seems the inevitable power of gravity. When in the mid-1990s the Museum of Modern Art reluctantly set up its innocent looking website at the persuasion of Barbara London, MoMA’s evangelist of media art, and a number of other upward-looking curatorial staff[1], the Thing.net, which had recently moved to the still dilapidated West Chelsea neighborhood, had been already, along with its European sister nodes, operating on a different cultural front for some time and its Berlin-styled monochrome website with plenty of perl scripts under the belt, compared to MoMA’s rudimentary html pages, appeared sophisticated enough to rival the mammoth establishment, at least at face value and for the time being.These days are long gone – today, the Thing is still frequented by its old-time confrère, while MoMA has moved on to command the attention of millions online with its immense collection digitized and through a sleek interface design and elaborate web technologies. The recent impeccable installation of Jodi’s My%Desktop (2002) has again proved MoMA’s indisputable licensing power of rectifying the fringe to the center and canonizing the once avant-garde, transforming and elevating the one-person (desktop) show to a collective immersion of visual ensemble.Net.art, and netart or net art (a serendipitously adopted term with a mélange of connotations describing its hybrid contention by origin and heterogeneity by nature[2]), was also later realized by many to have been the last art movement of the 20th century, albeit without a collectively concerted manifesto.[3]By 1997, a few short years after its emergence, net art seemed to have already “reached a dead end or a turning point.”[4] For according to Dieter Daniels, the three fundamental principles that had been pursued by the instigators of early net art, i.e.: “construction of an independent, partly self-designed technological infrastructure; formation of a self-organized community and the collective design and testing of a corresponding model of discourse; development of a form of art specific to the network, exploring the medium’s potential in an experimental, self-reflective way,”[5] had all but been sabotaged by precisely the opposite of what the pioneering visionaries had strived for: commodification of network and territorialization of the online milieu. The web had turned into a distributional and promotional channel propagated by art of all forms and kinds, not to mention that the internet had become the Internet and the economic engine of the next few decades, and more.[6]A signifying indicator of such a demise evidently was also the eventual institutional admission of net art into the 1997 Documenta X while at the same time the miserable failure of the institution’s comprehension of the medium. The presentation was kept apart from the rest of the artworks in an isolated office-like blue-colored room, and the web works were installed on a local area network that would inevitably lead people browsing hypertext links to dead ends.[7]But this presumable deadend also enabled the birth of, probably, one of the best known, or most infamous works of net art: Documenta Done. Upon hearing that Documenta organizers were to take down its official website and package it, along with online projects, and sell it as a CD Rom, Vuk Ćisic, the Slovenian net artist, cloned the entire website prior to it being taken offline and reposted on his own sever with a pseudo press release under the sensational headline “Eastern European Hacker Steals ‘Documenta’ Website.” He then redistributed the Documenta website for free and exhibited it on many occasions and configurations. Asked of his motivation, in lieu of various speculations by commentators that saw the stunt as a typical Dadaist prank or else as an institutional critique of its digital reincarnation, Ćisic replied, “So obviously we were looking for mischief, ways to subvert it.”[8]This exhibition takes the purported net art’s “dead end” as a new starting point to chart a discursive trajectory of the practices since then, in the many manifestations of network-based art. Instead of prescribing it a categorical definition, the exhibition attempts to uncover the variegated developments, diverse strategies, critical positions and aesthetic experiments after the crash of the dot.com bubble, amidst the prevalence of neoliberalism and cognitive capitalism, and the rise of populism and nationalism. Sideways reveals the continuum of the Avant-garde “nettitudes” inherent in the works of these artists.It is within this tradition of mischief that net art marked a particular strand of genealogy with the historical avant-garde. Much like Documenta Done, in the guise of a Dadaist prank, launched a roundabout attack on the artworld’s powerful, subsequent works such as Bumplist (Jonah Brucker-Cohen & Mike Bennett, 2003 - 2020) would devise a mechanism to boot out a subscriber as soon as another user signed up, in order to insinuate a playful take on law and order, or else as in those deceptive clones endlessly propagated in the work of TraceNoizer – Disinformation on Demand (Annina Rüst, Roman Abt, Fabian Thommen, Urs Hodel and Silvan Zurbruegg, 2001), in which users would let go viral a piece of false information so as to perform a counter-surveillance stunt. A more recent incarnation of such an impulse to do away with capitalist consumerism can be found in The Internet . Click (Jonas Lund, 2017). Harron Mirza’s triptych of live feeds of Instagram via VPN (Inappropriate Appropriation, Biter, Toy, 2019) alludes to a complex exchange of artefacts by which we have learned that knowledge sharing is never wishfully innocent, and the global network is always locally conditioned. The seemingly innocuous exercises of artists’ whims underlie a playfully recalcitrant instinct that shares its genes with the fanfares of Cabaret Voltaire[9] and the uncanny persona of Rrose Sèlavy.[10]Sometimes a head-on clash could also be necessary in order to provoke more commotions and therefore sensations. When Knowbotic Research installed their New York debut of Minds of Concern at the New Museum in 2002, they would have been beholden to legal implications should they fulfill the work as conceived, and that could have led to potentially shutting down the exhibition and other unpleasant consequences. In this Art Hacking Show, the Knowbotic Research artists had planned to use Security Scanner to unveil the IP addresses of various grassroots organizations and media artists to bring to public attention the vulnerability and security loopholes in cyberspace among these ill-protected front-liners, thus to directly engage in legal practicalities which would have lasting impact in the political ecology of the internet. Such real-world intervention also finds its predecessors in the likes of Dada, Fluxus, Situationists, and even in the provocateurs of Conceptual Art. Hans Haacke, for example, who had repeatedly made his patron museums anxious and uneasy, if not more in recent records of performance art. In Domestic Tension (2007), Wafaa Bilal, the Iraqi-born artist, staged a situation in which highly divided American options on the controversial Iraq war were mirrored by those who were drawn by the temptation of “shooting an Iraqi” (the work’s online tagline) to virtually pull a trigger that via the internet would physically shoot from a robotically controlled gun a paintball at the artist, confined 24/7 in a gallery-transformed living space, and those who came to his defense. Through this unforgiving online exchange, the political complexities of the Iraq war were made open not only symbolically but also experientially, alongside it the mysterious gamification of killing was stripped bare.Cultural spaces are also marketplaces, the dialectics of the cultural logic is that art teases the market (Banksy comes to mind, for example) and capital loves art. But as the world of wealth is owned by the one percent, so is the art market. Paolo Cirio determined that the astronomical auction prices should be redistributed via the supposedly democratic reshuffling of the internet. A derivative can be earned by buying a Jasper Johns at a fraction of the Sotheby’s auction price. The artist clearly was serious about the sale but not just striking a symbolic gesture. Real action vs. speculative auction.In examining contemporary art from the 1970s onward, art historian Hal Foster contended that “The shift in conception — from reality as an effect of representation to the real as a thing of trauma — may be definitive in contemporary art.”[11] Today the traumatic and the abject prevail online as a parallel world of misery and wretchedness. With relentless rants and raves, bombastic swerves and vortex, Ubermorgan once again unapologetically forces upon us a squeamish reality as is rampant in the likes of the ultraright Breitbart publicity, where “transhumanists, fashionable fascists, anti-vaxxers, incels, and Silicon Valley supremacists” roam.  Breitbart Red’s stylized propaganda and sensational catchlines are reminiscent of the indelible memory of destruction. Disruption comes in many styles and flavors. When Wolfgang Staehle set up The Thing BBS in a basement on White Street in Tribeca in 1991, he wasn’t thinking in such lofty terms as to overthrow something, but rather desired an act of enabling, the act of taking ownership of the network infrastructure, which, by bypassing the encroachment of a corporate network, the German artist saw as the foundation for the nascent potential of Social Sculpture in the digital era, thus seeded the first social media by the name of art. By the same token, People’s Computing, a rare collection of ZHOU Pengan, which is comprised of antiquated artifacts of the DIY group CFido, electronic dictionary, PDA, Flash animations and Opensource wireless firmware hacks, sheds light on the forgotten story of the early Chinese Internet culture during its formative years of the late 1990s and early 2000s. The amateurish enthusiasm and self-propagated autonomy mark a striking similarity with the pioneering spirit of their predecessors. Maciej Wisniewski (Netomat, 2002) set out to create a browser for he doubted Netscape’s or Internet Explorer’s navigational logic, which he thought could fixate a way of looking at the world and cast consumer behaviors in the interest of companies. In the case of Name.Space, artist Paul Garrin, once a student of Nam June Paik, reinvented himself as an entrepreneur so that he could negotiate with the executives at Network Solutions, which managed and controlled top domain names. Name.Space made headline news in the New York Times, The Economist, etc. The artist wanted to run domain names, too, for a romantically wished-for autonomy and for a new model of service as art – much like the Thing BBS's enactment of network as art. Both predated the soon-to-be buzzword of artworld of the 1990s: Relational Aesthetics proposed by the French curator Nicolas Bourriaud.Disruption elicits invitations, too. Ursula Endlicher (Light and Dark Networks, 2011-2013) and the artist duo Exonemo (0 to 1 / 1 to 0, 2019), among others, were commissioned to sabotage the Whitney Museum of American Art by taking over whitney.org each day at the liminal moments of sunrise and sunset by the invited artist’s self-intuited references and preferences. The precious ten to thirty seconds mark the institution’s generous consent of the validity of net art, and an homage to the self-styled reverie of the avant-garde as Christiane Paul, curator of Whitney’s art port, the museum’s portal to the internet art, spoke about the program; “Using whitney.org as their habitat, Sunrise/Sunset projects disrupt, replace, or engage with the museum website as an information environment.”[12] Perhaps it is a euphemism for a new kind of Institutional Critique of the information age. Capital absorbs, culture assimilates, and art re-appropriates, much like gravitation pulls. When Radical Software Group released Canivore, an open source packet sniffing library, they offered their own line of flight about data types, operators, control structures and functions in a flare of manifesto, not unlike the romantic outcry of the world-change ethos of the Futurists, they called it Notes for a Liberated Computer Language.[13] Although Carnivore in the end was no more than a data visualization toolkit, its radicality lies in its intrinsic disobedience to the given norms, whether the clandestine appropriation of FBI surveillance software or the radicalization of programming language itself. It was only later revealed that the core members of the group, Eugene Thacker and Alex Galloway, were on their way to become radical theorists of media culture.The hacker instinct has always been part of the genes of net art. It still thrives today after a short pause during a period some dubbed the post-internet, which more or less was a misnomer if not a misconception. In default filename tv (2019), Everest Pipkin exposed the backstage logic of YouTube videos. His mesmerizing installation of Lacework (2020) again is an ingenuous improvisation of one hacker’s persistence to turn vastly mundane datasets into a new expression of generative sublime. In We leak (2020), Leon Eckert and Vytas Jankauskas have extended the legacy of Carnivore to give a fresh 2020 update of the original, albeit quite idiosyncratically. The visual is now substituted by the audible to resonate with the surrounding sound of Alexas. “Every time a packet goes through its local network, the device will announce it being logged. If a plain-text packet gets intercepted, its content will be read aloud.”[14] If data visualization is a representation of probable messages, then We leak unforgivingly tells the uninterrupted truth. Noise removed, entropy defeated, and pure information attained.Artists were sincerely excited and inspired when the arrival of the internet finally seemed capable of fulfilling the telematic embrace that had been dreamt about for decades. It was not only a way to communicate bi-directionally or through multi-nodal hyperlinks as promised in a decentralized network, but also through which a new form of autonomy implicit of a literal realization of the Beuysian “Everyone is an artist” could come true or that now, at last, everyone could indeed have his / her fifteen minutes of fame. Net Art Generator (Cornelia Sollfrank, 1999) was a classic of such aspirations. That tradition continued to update itself into mobile phones with the 2013 creation of Raoul Pictor Mega Painter (Hervé Graumann / Matthieu Cherubini, 2013). The App store tagline reads “With Raoul Pictor Mega Painter you can make art whenever you want and wherever you want.”At a time when Instagram, YouTube, TikTok, Facebook and WeChat reign supreme, online social networks have grown ever more homogenized, it is cognition capitalism working at its best: consumption of freedom and democracy are among the most profitable under the scrutiny of corporate gazes. Guo Chen set out to dispute such premediated habitats of social media. In Wind Verification (2020) he transforms user uploaded video clips of the invisible force of wind into embodied sensory experience in the physical space of the gallery – a fan blows out the wind aligning with the directions of virtual wind in the video. It is an illuminating gesture of the unanimous many weaved into the potential of a storm in the making in a world in which the unreal is no less real than the real.Lauran Lee McCarthy teamed with Kyle McDonald have distributed a product that “tracks, analyzes, and auto-manages your relationships.”[15] The app pplkpr (2015) conveniently automates one’s social life. Like many of her works, the overly optimistic anticipation of technologically optimized life is often infused with sarcasm and castigation about the very things it proselytizes. Likewise, in Later Date (2020) her seemingly melancholic sentimentalism was nevertheless evocative of wit and hope. It is the “zany, cute and interesting” as the aesthetic supplements (as opposed to the dire prescriptions of Hal Foster) for a critique of the new reality, as Sianne Ngai aptly articulated in her 2012 volume Our Aesthetic Categories.When Heath Bunting interrupted the routines of the Kings Cross Station in London on August 4 1994 by inviting people, via email, to call in from all over the world, it seemed a reminiscence of John Cage’s 1966 ambitious episode Variation VII, during which he had ten telephone lines set up in various locations in New York City and the incoming voices would be mixed and amplified with other mechanical (blender, juicer, fan), environmental (Geiger meter), and physiological (pulse generator)[16] sounds onside transmitted via sensors by the performers at the Armory for the legendary 9 Evenings of performance. Of course, Bunting's setup was not nearly as sophisticated as Cage’s and the purpose was also different. It foreshadowed that net art was from the beginning not just something that happened on a web browser, but a much more extended scope of operation even though in those days the net could mostly only be experienced through a browser window. Today, we ever more understand that the net is the membranes of a symbiosis which connects machines with blood vessels, in dialogue with elongated rivers and lands, intercepts wind and rain, permeates from the tangible to the invisible. The networks bricolage silicon with flesh, traverse the organic through to the inorganic, fusing humans and nonhuman, all reciprocal and comingling. A new generation of artists are particularly sensitive toward this precarious posthuman condition in which we live and by which they make art. An intricate installation triggered by online users that in turn feeds back to the browser behavior with the unflattering title Miasma of the Rocks (CHEN Pengfei, LIU Xing, LIANG Yuhong, XU Haomin and ZHAO Hua, 2020) is characteristic of such reciprocity of human-machine mutuality rippling through bodies and networks, akin to the posthuman explication in the words of Cary Wolfe:It comes both before and after humanism: before in the sense that it names the embodiment and embeddedness of the human being in not just its biological but also its technological world, the prosthetic coevolution of the human animal with the technicity of tools and external archival mechanism…. [It] comes after in the sense that it names a historical moment in which the decentering of human by its imbrication in technical, medical, informatic, and economic networks is increasingly impossible to ignore.[17]ZKM | Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe was prescient to organize a show in 1999 after “the dead end of net art,” titled net_condition before most art institutions had come to an awakening that a new epoch had descended and it would be defined by the network. The net condition has reaffirmed, by now, a perpetual condition, and it is a posthuman condition with the net condition as its circulatory and respiratory prerequisites. In a world that is stricken by a rampant pandemic and virulent misinformation, a world bankrupted by corporate rapacity, a world of tumults and crises, accelerated by glorious artificial intelligence in the feedforward anticipation of the Kurzweilian transhuman singularity; a world of hardened passion and redemption, a world in every way reminiscent of the fertile ground in which the Avant-garde germinated and thrived, net art, the last avant-garde of the 20th century, may once again at this “turning point” take up that Quixotic spirit of intrepidity and strive on, once again from the periphery and the fringe – with a little mischief, a pinch of agitation too, via action, through the beautiful, and by sideways, to remake history.[1] Barbara London, Video Art the First Fifty Years (New York: Phaiden Press, 2020), p.184.[2] Josephine Bosma, Netitudes Lets Talk Net Art (Rotterdam: NAi Publications,2011), p.22 - 61.[3] Dieter Daniels & Gunther Reisinger, “Reverse Engineering Modernism with the Last Avant-garde” in Net Pioneers 1.0, eds. Dieter Daniels & Gunther Reisinger (Rotterdam: NAi Publications,2009), p.15.[4] Ibid., p.31.[5] Ibid., p.27.[6] Net Pioneers 1.0, p.31.[7] https://rhizome.org/editorial/2017/mar/02/the-copy-and-the-paste/, accessed 10/18/2020[8] https://rhizome.org/editorial/2017/mar/03/repo-man/. accessed 10/18/2020[9] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cabaret_Voltaire_(Zurich), accessed 10/18/2020[10] Marcel Duchamp’s female alter ego.[11] Hal Foster, The Return of the Real (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1996), p.146.[12] https://whitney.org/artport/commissions/sunrise-sunset. accessed 10/18/2020[13] http://r-s-g.org/LCL/[14] From the work description[15] https://lauren-mccarthy.com/pplkpr. accessed 10/18/2020[16] http://www.medienkunstnetz.de/works/variations-vii/; https://johncage.org/pp/John-Cage-Work-Detail.cfm?work_ID=272. accessed 10/18/2020[17] Cary Wolfe, What is Posthumanism (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2010), p.XV.
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