academic research

Understand Gu Yuan...

2019-10-15 11 people interested

There seems to be a special attachment between us - this is not limited to certain incidents or artworks, but more accurately speaking, Gu Yuan and his art is a coordinate in my idea matrix, like the important “points” on a chess manual. ...More

Around Leonardo. Pupils, followers, imitators...

2019-09-10 71 people interested

This is an exhibition that— in the year of the celebrations of the five-hundred-year anniversary of the death of the Renaissance genius — focuses on the artistic and cultural climate generated by him in his time that from today (and until August 25) proposes in Venice the Levi Foundation in Palazzo GiustinianLolin. “Leonardo e la sua grande scuola” (“Leonardo and his great school”)— this is the title of the exhibition curated by Nicola Barbatelli— exhibits in fact 24 works that illustrate above all the personality of the so-called “leonardeschi”(“Leonardesques”), some of who attended his workshop in Lombardy, when he was in the service of Lodovico il Moro, and the works by the “leonardeschi” largely crystallized on the master’s style, remaining at a sidereal distance from him. However, they had the great merit of spreading, through their travels, the innovative style of Leonardo also in areas outside from his journeys, like Giovanni Agostino da Lodi (not present in the exhibition) in Venice, Bernardino Luini in Switzerland or Cesare daSesto in southern Italy and Rome.This is also remembered by a historian of Venetian art such as Giovanna NepiScirèin one of the essays accompanying the exhibition’s catalogue (still in print).The works of some of them, from Bernardino Luini to Cesare da Sesto, to the beloved pupil Salaì, to Giampietrino to Marco d'Oggiono, are precisely in the Venice exhibition. In some cases, with works of high level such as “Marta e Maria Maddalena” (“Martha and Mary Magdalene”)or “Maddalena con vaso d’unguento” (“Magdalene with an ointment vase”)of Luini, in particular for his ability to combine Leonardo’s sfumatowith a kind of metaphysical rigour that pervades his figures. And  exactly Magdalene herself is represented in one of the symbol-pictures of the exposition, the “Maddalena discinta” (“Bare-Breasted Magdalene”),that next to the preponderant hand of one of the Leonardesques — perhaps Marco d’Oggiono for the curator, perhaps Giampietrino for a great Leonardo scholar suchas Carlo Pedretti, recently passed away — could also see the hand of the master. Peculiar also a large “San Gerolamo in penitenza” (“Saint Hieronymus Penitent”)by Cesare da Sesto, who enriched Leonardo’s language with revivals from the classical art and from Raphael.The Leonardesques’ distinguishing feature remains — variously declined — the compositional smoothness, the use of sfumato, the diffuse illumination, the melancholic beauty of the subjects, the ambiguity of the faces. Leonardo’s sure presence in the exhibition is however represented by a fragment of a study drawing for the lost fresco, “Battaglia di Anghiari” (“Battle of Anghiari”)— of which the Gallerie dell’Accademia exhibit in this period several sheets — and by that of a “Testa di uomo” (“Man’s Head”), gone over again by the hand of a pupil of the artist. The director of the Levi Foundation, Giorgio Busetto, the president of the cooperative party Venice 2000 Foundation, Giuliano Segre and Francesco Stochino Weissof the Beijing Music Festival Arts Foundation yesterday presented in the opening ceremony. As a matter of fact, the exhibition, after Venice, will fly to China, to be shown first in Beijing starting from the early September, and then in other cities in China. In line also with the musical vocation of the Levi Foundation, in the Chinese stages it will also see musical interludes with the Ugo and Olga Levi Venice Ensemble with students of the Benedetto Marcello Conservatory, that will perform Renaissance music with vintage instrumentsand also passages of Chinese tradition.Enrico Tantucci ...More

从观众视角看雷安德罗•埃利希的创作...

2019-09-02 30 people interested

巨大而精巧的景观,超现实的情景,乐此不疲的观众……从步入展厅的那一刻起,一种独属于雷安德罗·埃利希(Leandro Erlich)的创作特征,瞬时间涌入视野,冲刷并震颤着人们的感官。 ...More

To Hold a “Knowledgeable” Exhibition - Taking “Exhibition of Selected Works from the National Beiping Art School Period” as an Example...

2019-08-07 70 people interested

The “CAFA Art Museum (CAFAM) Collection Series: Exhibition of Selected Works from the National Beiping Art School Period” (“National Beiping Art School Exhibition” or “the Exhibition”) is a trademark CAFAM collection exhibition since 2012. It has received good response and acclamations from the society. The Exhibition is one of the few monographic collection series in the domestic art museum world. It is a program worth exploration and reference, in the aspects of its selected topics, exhibitions, academic research, publicity and exhibition period. The article will analyze the intellectual and academic qualities of the exhibition’s content and structure.Living in a world filled with thousands of various exhibitions, including the collection exhibitions, we are still struggling to find meaningful ones in them. It is partly due to the limited level of exhibited artworks, but is further because of the out-of-date curatorial ideas and the result of which, lack of exhibitions with substance and reason. In an era of information explosion, when the information people receive increases greatly, the audience are no longer satisfied with the superficial image of artworks. They have more need for the cultural concept and creative intentions behind the world. The quality of the exhibition’s effect lies in the curatorial team’s ideas, which decide every detail of an exhibition. CAFAM is one of the earliest to raise the idea of producing knowledge in art museums in China. It views the art museums as a public space that produces and provides knowledge, and regards “knowledge production” as the historical responsibility and profession of art museums: “Art museums should be a synthesis of ‘knowledge production’. Every action related to art and culture that happens in an art museum can build up the meanings and values of ‘knowledge’; Art museums should take the production of ‘knowledge’ as its starting point and core meaning.” Art museums have historical responsibility in social education. Its exhibitions represent the professional institutions’ perspectives and attitudes. Through exhibitions they lead to discussions about the artworks, promote research on relevant art history research and the dissemination of artistic concepts, for the public to acquire knowledge and new perspectives on art. This is an important channel for the art museums to practice its function. In this sense, when we hold exhibitions in an art museum, we need to consider what the audience need and what we need to show them.Under the guidance of such concept, every step during the preparation of the National Beiping Art School Exhibition is centered around how to study the collection, how to make the audience understand the artworks, the theme of “Beiping Art School” and how to help the audience understand the exhibition and learn knowledge. This is a common goal for all the collection exhibitions - with real content and attitude, to “study history and collection profoundly and structurally and form an ‘art history’ writing.” 1.  Cultural Responsibilities and Knowledge Production from the Perspective of the Selected Topics of the National Beiping Art School ExhibitionThe topics of collection exhibitions are very important. The topic is the guideline of an exhibition. A good exhibition’s topic must have high academic level, historical sense, and contain social thinkings about the history and modern time, so that it is fresh instead of cliche and powerless; so that new possibilities could generate from the historical collections, while new academic viewpoint and research result can be passed on to the audience; so that the audience could truly learn things and further push forward the art cause.Why choosing the topic of the National Beiping Art School Exhibition? CAFAM has given to it thorough thinking: First, National Beiping Art School is a miniature and milestone of the development of modern art education in China. In the foreword of the first series exhibition it says: “The National Beiping Art School will was not only the fine art education shrine that gathered the best teachers and students and represented modern Chinese art, but also a cultural front that advocated spirits such as art education for all and the combination of art and science.” Many important thinkings, events and figures of modern Chinese art history are interwoven with the history of the National Beiping Art School, especially in Beijing, without the knowledge of the School would make it difficult to understand art during the Republic of China period. Moreover, as the predecessor of CAFA, the School is the foundation of many of CAFA’s heritage. During its 30-year development in Beijing, it had established close relationship with Beijing’s cultural scene, and was one of a significant aspect of Beijing culture. Thus, the National Beiping Art School is an utterly important and meaningful topic in terms of modern art history. Meanwhile, it is also a paradox: As the first national art school of modern China, a nursery ground for a large number of talents, it is still perceived vaguely, shatteredly, and inadequately by the public and even the academic world. In a long period of time, knowledge and research on the Beiping National Art School was in its primary stage. Its historical meaning is still far from well dug into. In this sense, this topic has filled in the gap of Chinese art history, as well as the gap in most audience’s cognition of art. This is exactly the responsibility of art museums. In the early stage of preparation for the Exhibition, CAFAM took the angle of art history research, and tried to bring in a macroscopical and historic thinking. What the museum needs to do is more than the display of artworks, but more importantly to tell a history, to fill the gap in the audience’s knowledge as well as art history research.2. Knowledge Production and Communication of Collection Exhibition from the Perspective of Organization and Execution of the National Beiping Art School ExhibitionThe successful selection of topic has solved an important problem, but why curating such an exhibition? How would the museum hold such an exhibition and will it be able to successfully hold the exhibition? The answers lie in adequate preparation. Only with adequate preparation the exhibition will naturally happen.In the foreword for the first series exhibition that focuses on western paintings, it mentioned four fundamental works regarding the National Beiping Art School: First, the discovery of important artists and artworks; second, organization and protection; third, featured researches on the collections and the National Beiping Art School; digital archiving. It was because these works have made progress that CAFAM was able to begin the exhibition series. Regarding the execution of the exhibition, the curators hope every part of the exhibition could offer adequate information and effective knowledge for the audience, so that they could understand the exhibition in multiple perspectives and levels, and make new discoveries through the exhibition. To achieve this goal, the curators put great effort in the selection, writing and organization of the exhibition, with the hope that the audience could comprehend the essence of the art during the National Beiping Art School period, and construct a succinct but complete image of the School. (1) Choose angles and accurate positioning of the exhibition according to the practical contentThe National Beiping Art School displayed by the Exhibition almost has no trace in most people’s memory, and that’s why a great deal of image archives and researches are needed to enrich the School’s picture. It is a fine art school with comprehensive disciplines, including painting, music, theater and architecture; in its 30 some years history, there were numerous disciplines and complex staff and student groups, which makes it especially important to choose what content the exhibition would display. In recent years, paintings by the first west painting professors Wu Fading and Li Yishi, like Wu’s Portrait of Woman Wearing Qipao and Li’s Portrait of Chen Shizeng (Picture 9), and works by teachers of the later period such as Sun Zongwei, Qi Zhenqi, Wang Linyi are gradually discovered and organized. Adding the original collection of masterpieces by Xu Beihong, Zhang Daqian, Qi Baishi, Huang Binhong, Chen Banding, Chang Shuhong, Wu Zuoren, Ai Zhongxin, Li Keran and Li Kuchan, CAFAM is equipped with a fundamental collection of the National Beiping Art School period. However, the collection is mainly composed of oil painting, Chinese painting, sketches and pastel painting, which is limited in categories and not able to reflect a complete picture of the School. Even so, another research on teachings during the Naitonal Beiping Art School period indicates that these categories exactly echo with the two most important and longest-established departments - western paintings and Chinese paintings. It is based on this fact that the curation of the Exhibition highlights these two departments, in order to show the main image and artistic characters of the School. In order to fully present the highly distinguished conditions and developments of western paintings and Chinese paintings in that period, the exhibition took the form of series exhibition, and held two feature exhibitions separately for western and Chinese paintings.Exhibitions with a specialized angle might not be comprehensive or grand, but they have more advantage in offering effective knowledge and information to the audience. This is a very important function of collection exhibitions. (2) Select exhibited works by academic standard and professional knowledgeExhibited works are traditionally the main body and most important component of an exhibition. The richest and most emphasized content of any exhibition is the exhibited works. To curate a fruitful exhibition for the audience, we must select works with high artistic value. Many of the exhibited works at the National Beiping Art School Exhibition are very precious works with high academic and artistic value, most of which are exhibited for the first time; some have even filled the gap of academic studies, such as Wu Fading’s Portrait of Woman Wearing Qipao, Li Yishi’s Portrait of Chen Shizeng, Portrait of Wang Mengbai in the western painting sector; and Zheng Jin’s Fox, Magnolia and Peacock, and Chen Shizeng’s album in the Chinese painting. With these precious works once again entered the public sphere through the Exhibition, neglected masters such as Yao Manfu, Xiao Qianzhong, Wang Mengbai, Tang Dingzhi, Yu Shaosong, Yan Bolong, Qi Zhenqi, Fang Bowu were also discovered. In the academic world, these works provide more complete materials for research on art history and construction of fine art memory of the Republic of China era; in the social realm, the public enjoy the opportunity of gaining a more complete, honest and richer knowledge of the art of the National Beiping Art School.These works themselves were not labeled with “National Beiping Art School”, neither were they from the same source, so how did we select and gather them up? It was thanks to the extensive effort of exhibition organizers. Every search and categorization of a work is a transmit of knowledge. A especially good point of the National Beiping Art School Exhibition is the serious-minded organization of works based on fact checks. Each and every artwork selected for the exhibition conformed to the exhibition’s standards, and could reflect the message the exhibition would like to pass on. When the exhibition was first organized, CAFAM has clear and strict rules for the works to be selected: First, as the theme is National Beiping Art School, the works must be related with the School - works from the School’s teachers or students, with its date and information clearly recorded, though because of the immature development of researches on the School, we encountered a lot of difficulties in the fact check works. Moreover, the National Beiping Art School people usually generally refer to was founded in 1918 and merged into Central Academy of  Fine Arts in 1949. Since it stopped existing since 1950, with a lot of academic changes happening since then, the works by the right authors must also be created during circa. 1918-1950. This is to guarantee the original presentation of the School’s art styles and to reduce historical misreadings. In order to find most comprehensive collection of works by the National Beiping Art School’s artists, we on the one hand search for names in the School’s staff and student rosters; on the other hand, we went through resumes of artists collected by CAFAM, and located those who were related to the School. After strict screening of works, we selected works that accord with the exhibition standards. But even though, they were not the final selections (all of them were included in the exhibition catalogue for future academic studies). Only the most precious and wonderful artworks were eventually exhibited according to requirements of the exhibition standards and space. The exhibited works could most directly tell the audience what the National Beiping Art School was, and what are the works that could most represent the School. The process of selecting works were also a process of clarifying truth, a process of showing the real picture of works from the National Beiping Art School period. Furthermore, as exhibited works were strictly organized according to the chronological order of the artists’ birth date, it could clearly present the change of era, and make the audience understand more clearly the School’s development in different stages. (3) Organize history and academic background behind works from the perspective of academic research and audience’s acceptabilityAlthough the National Beiping Art School Exhibition was divided into two themes: western painting and Chinese painting, due to the lack of the public’s knowledge of the School, it would confuse the audience if we directly entered narration about the two genres. In this sense, it is particularly important to have a basic research and introduction of the history and development of the School.  Only when the audience understood that part of information that they would understand the artworks’ cultural meaning, historical and artistic value. So firstly, facing the problems of the School’s complicated history of being established and re-established by different governments during the Republic of China period, its confusing naming in different stages and even today, curators conducted basic but clear organization of the history of the School. In the opening exhibition (Western Painting), the curators set up several blocks that provide introduction of the School in text and pictures, to form a vivid, graphic memory of the School. I now list a few of the blocks below: 1) The National Beiping Art School Chronology organized by Cao Qinghui (Picture 14 & 15), which presents detailed time of every change of the School’s name, directors, administrative affiliations, and addresses; 2) Table of the Corresponding Relationships between CAFAM Western Painting Collection’s Authors and the National Beiping Art School History, made by CAFAM, which organizes the exhibited artists’ time of study or teaching at the School, linking abstract history events with concrete paintings and creating a whole piece of picture with the two separate parts; 3) Archives, photos, seals and part of the books collected by the National Beiping Art School Library (Picture 16 - 20), such as the sketch portfolio sent by Zhang Xian to the School in 1936, articles by Xu Beihong and others to mourn Qi Zhenqi’s death, reports on Qi Zhenqi’s death, the School’s 1928 yearbook, archives of all phases of the School collected by CAFA, and “Artworks in Overseas Collections” at the “Realignment” exhibition, etc. These precious and vivid materials carry a great deal of historical message  and traces, bringing the audience to the time of the School, and passing on abundant historical codes to the audience. Meanwhile, the first systematic exhibition of these precious archives further provide materials and fuels to the development of academic research. For instance, in the following “The National Beiping Art School and Art of Republic of China” symposium, a scholar spoke about the Line between the North and the South issue of the Republic of China art based on Zhang Xian’s sketch portfolio.As many artists of this exhibition were unknown to the public, the Exhibition also sorted out complete resume of each artist (Picture 21), including the artist’s photo, birth date and death date, birthplace, alias, education and work experience, and major academic propositions, and mostly importantly, their teaching time and positions at the National Beiping Art School. Through this resume, the audience would know the artists’ achievements, their relationship with the School, and the important roles these people played in the Republic of China art world. In both the western painting and Chinese painting sectors, the artists’ signs and inscriptions were recognized; especially in the case of the seals, preface and postscripts on Chinese paintings, we especially displayed the text recognized by professional scholars alongside the original artworks, so that the audience could compare the text with that in the paintings, to help themselves better understand the works’ intentions.Except for the above mentioned works and archives, the Exhibition also collected, and displayed relevant research materials of the National Beiping Art School, to provide academic researches with more clues and questions, which makes it a good practice of pushing forward research with exhibition. In order to explain the special characters of the School’s period, especially the relationship between teachers’ creative practices and theoretical research (painting studies), the Chinese painting sector of the Exhibition collected and exhibited the first editions of important essays and articles by the exhibited artists published in the Republic of China period. Some of these materials are already academic classics, but there were hardly any chance for them to be gathered together, especially their first edition; in this case, the Exhibition presented a special scenery by linking these articles together with the thread of the National Beiping Art School. Meanwhile, the organization of these materials also provide systematic clue to Chinese paintings created during the National Beiping Art School period and even the Republic of China period (Picture 22). CAFAM saw this exhibition as a platform to gather materials of value in all layers, and through categorization and organization it hopes to see chemical reactions in thinking and research.The Exhibition’s introduction and presentation of history and academic background shows CAFAM’s academic level and vision. Only when the historical relations of the artworks are organized and the stories behind artworks are well told, that the audience would find it easier to understand the exhibition and the knowledge behind it, so as for the effective communication of knowledge. (4) Conduct systematic and focused academic researches and guide the audience through the exhibitionOnly putting good artworks together won’t make a good exhibition. The real value of a work is the historical value and artistic value it carries. Thus the Exhibition proposes to conduct analyses on artworks not from the superficial and isolated angles of their content, techniques, but from their (art) historical background and development, and to appreciate different works and discover their charisma via comparison. Guiding the audience to appreciate artworks is both the museum’s responsibility and requirement for knowledge circulation. Feature research became the partly hidden and partly visible kite string behind, as well as the academic core of the exhibition. It is exactly this idea that the Exhibition would like to affirm, that we should show the audience content and clues through art historical researches, and tell the audience what to see and how to see. All the research of the Exhibition series was centered around the National Beiping Art School’s history from the perspectives that the audience could easily understand, to re-organize the chaotic and complicated history events, and provide the audience with essence of artistic development below the surface.The academic focus of the exhibitions are clearly set according to the paintings’ genre and time. All three exhibitions include Associate Professor Cao Qinghui’s simple but profound feature research. Such a significant research body, tailored specially for an exhibition, is a rare case. In the western painting sector, Professor Cao Qinghui wrote an essay titled “Mainstream, main thread and others”, in which he conducted analyses on collected works and their authors, while linking them to the development of western art in China in the 20th century, so as to organize the main thread of the introduction and practice of western paintings in the first half of 20th century with the National Beiping Art School as an example. Research found out that most of the western painting teachers of the early National Beiping Art School period have studied abroad, so have the teachers from the late period, that’s why their works are closely related to Japan and Europe and involve complicated teacher-student relationships. To put it simply, the main thread of western painting’s development is linked by overseas students and their students; the main stream is the introduction of realistic paintings and the formation of realistic trend and school in 1940s. The main thread of Chinese painting’s development, on the other hand, was narrated by Prof. Cao Qinghui in his essay “The Transformation of Painting Studies Through Broken Shadows of Chinese Painting”. He analyzed main issues the Chinese Painting Department of the National Beiping Art School faced in the 30 some years history, such as the conflicts between western pedagogy and traditional Chinese painting study, conflicts between officers with overseas study background and Chinese faculties, and ups and downs of logic methodologies of painting study, the evolution of Chinese painting and the development of realism. The two essays not only provided distinctive organization and study of the history of western painting and Chinese painting disciplines of the National Beiping Art School, but also clarified the two disciplines’ faculty background, development process and art styles, narrated the major history events of western painting and Chinese painting, and divided the School’s history into clear phases. Based on this solid research result, the exhibition was curated from the two unique angles of overseas study and painting study, which reveals to the point the core question in changes of faculty and art styles during the School’s development. The exhibition thus offered special viewpoints and clues.The practice of the National Beiping Art School Exhibition indicates that except for good artworks, collection exhibitions must also have profound study and systematic organization of collected works. This kind of study should avoid pinning a meaningless academic label on works or exhibitions, which would only confuse the audience. Such study should go through detailed and accurate academic research and organization, should target certain aspects, while also considering the audience’s acceptability. (5)  Set up the museum’s educational responsibility in historical narration through collection exhibitionsThe Exhibition advocates an academic attitude of restoring and envisaging history. This accords with CAFAM’s educational responsibility to restore history and conduct historical narration.The history is full of variety and causal relationships, but it is also hypercritical and forgetful. Many hidden historical events are equally important in their days, and are an important node in the study of history. The lack of avoidance from history will lead to many misreadings, and thus the lost of vitality. In face of these significant problems, CAFAM should present objective exhibitions. The National Beiping Art School Exhibition, when dealing with the National Beiping Art School during the enemy occupation of Beiping  (it was named National Beijing Art School at the moment), gave that history objective positioning and evaluation.A museum’s display and narration of art history should be systematic and consistent, which is an important embodiment of the museum’s educational function. The National Beiping Art School Exhibition boldly experimented on this aspect, and made some achievements in the two exhibitions on western and Chinese painting. It seems that the question of the National Beiping Art School has been answered after systematic organization of the two painting disciplines, but following them CAFAM releases the third exhibition, named “Realignment: From National Beiping Art School, Yan’an Luxun College of Fine Arts to China Central Academy of Fine Arts” (Picture 23). In the foreword of the exhibition it says: “The museum narration of the National Beiping Art School, CAFA and the evolution of 20th century Chinese art, based on museum collection, has reflected the teachers and students’ creative trends, ups and downs in styles at the School and CAFA in different historical phases of 20th century. It starts to touch upon the relationship between the academy and the society, teachers and students and creative trends. In order for the narration to be more inherently logical, and to establish and dig deep into the historical relations between collected works, our museum believes that it is necessary to conduct specialized organization of the establishment of CAFA by merging the National Beiping Art School and the Yan’an Luxun College of Fine Arts through collection and archives.” The exhibition will further complete the  narration of the National Beiping Art School Exhibition series, and in the meanwhile facilitate explicit expression of CAFA’s relationship with its two predecessors, to form a “comparatively complete thematic museum narration”. The thinking is based upon a macroscopic narration and sincere attitude towards academic studies, and demonstrates CAFAM’s systematicness and sense of responsibility in terms of its public education function.3. Exhibition as a Component of Museum Knowledge CirculationThe National Beiping Art School Exhibition also went through profound and serious academic discussions about other topics relevant to the School. It expands the exhibition’s influence, generates more research subjects, and truly promotes research in this aspect. The Exhibition is no longer isolated, but has become a component of museum knowledge circulation. During the exhibition, two important symposium and semniar were settled: “The National Beiping Art School and Art of Republic of China” symposium (Picture 24) and “High as Mountains and Long as Rivers: Masters of the National Beiping Art School” seminar (Picture 25). The symposium invited over 40 experts from relevant academic field to speak, the content of which was later edited and published as a book. The seminar includes over ten lectures, each of them was unfolded around an old master from the National Beiping Art School. We have also combined seminars with master and doctor courses, encouraged the students to participate in the seminars and write essays based on the issues and their interested points mentioned in the seminars and the exhibitions. Throughout the development of relevant events, the three exhibitions of the National Beiping Art School Exhibition also continuously brewed and formed a positive cycle.Meanwhile, the Exhibition also practiced CAFAM’s good archiving tradition, editing and publishing the Exhibition’s data and research results. The Exhibition’s publication is not only an exhibition catalogue - it also adds in many works that weren’t exhibited, and significant academic materials that cannot be presented at the exhibition, to make the exhibition’s academic and archival quality more complete. The successive release of the publications also helps preserve and circulate the Exhibition’s research fruits, with they themselves become important research books of the field. It is worth mentioning that CAFAM also produced digital exhibition room for the Exhibition using digital technologies. It recorded the exhibition venue with 360-degree cameras, and linked the exhibition’s information to the visual footage, so that the exhibition’s visual effects could be preserved permanently, and the audience could revisit real site of the exhibition on their computers.A good exhibition shouldn’t be a lecture out of a textbook, but should contain rich thinkings of the curators. It’s like creating an unknown world for the audience to discover themselves. The audience could either achieve something following the route designated by the curators, or discover their own interests and inspirations freely. A good exhibition is not the end point of a research or an isolated event, but should be a transmission shaft that passes on more abundant resources, or a fermenter that incubates more fresh matters.The feature collection exhibition in Chinese museums is only at its beginning stage, and the National Beiping Art School Exhibition is a beneficial experiment. It sturdily completed a thematic series research, pushed forward development of relevant academic fields, and enhanced the public’s knowledge of art in the National Beiping Art School period to a certain extent. In this process, the museum’s curatorial idea was also well represented. Although the content is about works and archives of nearly a century ago, the curatorial idea and approach, as well as the ultimate effect of the exhibition, are new. Picture 1: Poster of the “Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 2: Bus stop light box advertisement design of the “Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 3: Large printing of the photo of the Auditorium of the National Beiping Art School and previous names of the School at all stages, put at the entrance of the “Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 4: Photo wall, archive presentation and seal background at the “Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 5: Entrance of the “Selected Works of Chinese Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” Exhibition (3rd Floor). A scroll painting of the National Beiping Art School collected by CAFAM is used as the main image of the exhibitionPicture 6: On-site photo of the “Selected Works of Chinese Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 7: At the entrance (3rd Floor) of the “Realignment: From National Beiping Art School, Yan’an Luxun College of Fine Arts to China Central Academy of Fine Arts (1946-1953)”  exhibition. The Chinese inscription of “National Fine Art Academy” by Mao Zedong is used as the main imagePicture 8: On-site photo of the “Realignment: From National Beiping Art School, Yan’an Luxun College of Fine Arts to China Central Academy of Fine Arts (1946-1953)”  exhibitionPicture 9: Li Yishi, Portrait of Chen Shizeng, Oil on Canvas, 70x130cm, 1920, Collection of CAFAM (This work is one of the two portrait works of Li Yishi from the 1920s that are known to be left to date. It is a very precious artwork and research material)Picture 10: On-site photo of the “Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 11: On-site photo of the “Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” Exhibition. The reading table and provided materials at the exhibition are spoken highly of by the audiencePicture 12: On-site photo of the “Selected Works of Chinese Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 13: On-site photo of the “Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 14: The National Beiping Art School Chronology compiled by Professor Cao Qinghui, displayed at the “Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 15: Seals of the names of CAFA since its establishment in 1918Picture 16: Photo wall of the valuable photos throughout the history of the National Beiping Art School at the “Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 17: Books collected by the National Beiping Art School Library, displayed at the “Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” Exhibition; displayed on the upper right corner is the sketch portfolio donated by Zhang Xian in 1936Picture 18: Photo of the “Selected Works of Chinese Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” Exhibition. The painting in the photo is Qi Baishi’s Eagle donated by the artist to the School in 1935. Displayed on the shelf on the left is Ling Wenyuan’s Discussions on Chinese PaintingsPicture 19: Yu Shaosong’s Fu Tang Lei Gao, displayed at the “Selected Works of Chinese Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 20: The National Beiping Art School Chronology compiled by Professor Cao Qinghui, once again displayed at the “Realignment: From National Beiping Art School, Yan’an Luxun College of Fine Arts to China Central Academy of Fine Arts (1946-1953)” ExhibitionPicture 21: The “Selected Works of Chinese Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” Exhibition collected and collated detailed resume of the artists. Many materials are made public for the first time. All the 34 resumes were shown in the exhibition area for the audience to quickly enter the atmosphere of the National Beiping Art SchoolPicture 22: The “Realignment: From National Beiping Art School, Yan’an Luxun College of Fine Arts to China Central Academy of Fine Arts (1946-1953)” Exhibition organized the representative artworks which were created in the early years after the establishment of the People’s Republic of China and cannot be exhibited on site, and displayed them as a video titled “Artworks in Overseas Collections”.Picture 23: The “Realignment: From National Beiping Art School, Yan’an Luxun College of Fine Arts to China Central Academy of Fine Arts (1946-1953)” Exhibition displayed Mao Zedong’s inscription of “National Fine Art Academy” in 1949 for the first time as a piece of workPicture 24: “The National Beiping Art School and Art of Republic of China” symposium was co-held by CAFAM and School of Humanities on April 6, 2013. A group photo was taken after the symposiumPicture 25: “High as Mountains and Long as Rivers: Masters of the National Beiping Art School” seminar was held by CAFAM and School of Humanities in Autumn 2013. It invited renowned scholars in China to conduct lectures on important figures in the history of the National Beiping Art School. The seminar has 10 lectures, and stirred heated discussions.Written by Li Yaochen, Director of Department of Collection, CAFA Art MuseumOriginally published in Issue 6 of University and Art MuseumEdited by Zheng Lijun1. The National Beiping Art School Exhibition has three parts: 1) CAFA Art Museum Collection Series: Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School (November 27, 2012 - April 25, 2013); 2) CAFA Art Museum Collection Series: Selected Works of Chinese Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School (June 6, 2013 - December 1, 2013); 3) Realignment: From National Beiping Art School, Yan’an Luxun College of Fine Arts to China Central Academy of Fine Arts (1946-1953) (November 4, 2014 - March 1, 2015).2. The National Beiping Art School Exhibition was listed as one of the Outstanding Exhibitions of National Exhibition Season of Brilliant Collection Works from Art Museums in China by the Ministry of Culture.3. Wang Huangsheng (2012), Art Museum as Knowledge Production, p.13, Central Compilation and Translation Press4. Wang Huangsheng (2012), Art Museum as Knowledge Production, p.14, Central Compilation and Translation Press ...More

The Adventure of Leandro Erlich...

2019-07-19 127 people interested

Fram Kitakawa, founder of Echigo-Tsumari Art Triennale and Setouchi Triennale Leandro Erlich is an artist that aims to jump out of the generic space of galleries and art museums. He tries to break through the space embodied by the 20th-century urban high-rise architectural complex. It is a bold challenge, from which we can comprehend his role in the contemporary era, and the reason behind his popularity.Some people hang themselves upside down on the wall; some cling to the wall; some hang on the wall with one hand; some completely free up their hands. It is in fact an illusion reflected on a glass board set in a 45-degree elevation angle. People are only lying down on the facade placed on the floor. —BuildingThe reflecting mirror placed in front of the real corridor creates an effect that the corridor is endless. — The CorridorThe clouds in the shape of France, Britain and Japanese Archipelago is the aggregation of irregular patterns formed by multi-layered glasses. - The CloudThe elevator is tightly packed, yet meanwhile there’s a strange man standing in it. — Elevator PitchIn the classroom next door, phantom-like people are looking at this side smiling. — The ClassroomI look through the window at the window of the house across the garden, only to see people standing in front of the window looking at a different direction, just like myself. — Lost GardenThe rolling coin operated laundry machine is only an illusionary image. — LaundryEvery room in the opposite building is changing slowly. — The Room (Surveillance II)When I believe I am looking down at the apartment buildings from high above, I am actually only standing on the floor. — La veredaThe wall of an old architecture is floating in the air. — Window & LadderA few boats are floating on the water surface without water, showing the ripples. — Port of ReflectionsAll walks of life can be seen walking under water from above the pool. — Swimming PoolThe changing rooms, originally single rooms, are connected by multiple rooms. The inside can be seen very clearly. — Changing RoomsLight is leaking from beneath the rooms, but as you enter them you will find that they are only walls. — The DoorsOn a sunny day, you look outside the window only to discover violent storms. — RainIn a hair salon, the mirror in front of my reflects a person behind me who shouldn’t exist. — Hair SalonWalking outside, you’ll see a house hanged up in the air. — Pulled by the RootsGeneric space is a predominant idea of the 20th century, or the modern time.  Mies van der Rohe believes that the capital and labor are congregated in the urban area, which leads to a metropolis full of high-rise buildings and composed of steel and glass walls. In fact, cities that develop around high-rise building complex are appearing all over the world, in China, Europe, America and Africa. This kind of space is detached from the multiplex characteristics of life and historical experience, and becomes a void space like laboratory. By changing the dividing wall of a room, a building can be easily transformed into a residency, office or restaurant. There is no more convenient building than the ones with well-adjusted indoor air. People in such space is counted and manipulated as a quantifiable figure.The space has lost the history and culture peculiar to the land, while people are defined by demographic statistics -  this is exactly the viewpoint that shroud the whole world impacted by the global market economy. Art is also developing under the same background. The ‘white box’ exhibition space encircled by white high walls is the space incised from the surrounding, having the same appearance in all countries and regions. This is called spatial balance. In such space, works can purely show their core concept, like in a science laboratory. In here we can clearly understand the jumping thoughts of the artists.However, here lies a big question.Does the ideal abstract space really exist?The problem we are truly facing is the constant deterioration of global environment, the increasing wealth gap one-sidedly created by the market economy controlled by transnational capitalists, and the capitalist moral degeneration resulted from it, leading to the loss of individual sensibility, mechanization and the disappearance of local culture. Since ancient times, artists have been gradually disclosing the relationship between human and nature, and civilization in the midst of the crisis of civilization and at the dawn of new eras. During this process, they use a technique mastered by human.The cave paintings in Altamira and Lascaux are on the one side pray for human’s toil in risking their life capturing middle-sized beasts, and on the other side pray for the pain the captured animals suffered. They embody the united relationship between human and nature. In any subsequent era, art has been the reflection of the relations between nature, society and human. In the vast universe formed accidentally, for the human race born at one moment of the universe, art is the only index of our self-cognition. Without that index human race won’t exist. Like language and literature, art is an index with universal meaning (a very good example is the paintings by the aboriginals). Leandro Erlich tries to break the boundaries by making use of the difference between materials such as glass boards, glass and water, and create boundaries in intangible generic space by using high-quality materials produced in modern industry. This is his creative practice.Everyone is at the terminal point of global information, drowned in all kinds of information, signs and rumors, while believing that we can freely choose and collect certain information. However, they are only the information manipulated within the limit permitted by power, capital and the Internet.These information is fixed in a specific image, and leads to a time that art stops progressing. It seems that we can freely choose from endless information, but the composition and thought pattern are becoming stereotyped.At this time, Leandro Erlich emerged.Either a work is put in Beijing, Johannesburg or London, people can appreciate and understand it in the same way. This is the exhibition standard of 20th century art in white boxes such as galleries and art museums, as well as the 20th century philosophy. Such generic space shares the same character with market economy, international finance and the Internet, and is the most influential (best) idea of the 20th century. It is fair to say that art develops based on generic space.— To judge a thing with the same viewpoint no matter where. —So, in order to transcend the generic space, how does Leandro consider it? Let us take a look at the meaning of Chinese characters, an ancient pictograph.移す (utsusu) →To copy, transcribe, keep and record.映す (utsusu) →To reflect an item’s original look as the light illuminate other items.映す (utsusu) →To duplicate, reprint and copy the original.The three words, with the same etymological origin, changed gradually and form the modern usage of “utsusu” (They share the same Japanese katakana and pronunciation).The different kinds of works by Leandro Erlich, to speak about them in Japanese or write about them in Chinese characters, are to show the context of “utsusu” in a brief and one-time-only place.He seals the space’s time here, like the time sealed in a movie. In his perspective, generic space has become an exceptionally indifferent space without accumulation of time. Thus, his method is to break through his own generic space by transferring a generic space.Modern space is only a thing without the concept of time. Leandro Erlich raised here a theory to generate space by transferring, duplicating and moving the subject. The object changes according to the human (subjects)’s behaviors. This is also the relationship between man and nature since ancient times. In Chinese characters there are homonyms that show turning points. I try to explore this relationship with the different meanings contained in these words. This is what Ernst Mach talked about “”, and the world described in synoptic gospels since ancient time. To simply put it, it is because I have sympathy for the word “stand”, that my reflection in the mirror is standing.I want to talk about the certainty in Leandro Erlich’s creative practice. As he is having his exhibition in Beijing, I would like to elaborate with the “Six Principles of Chinese Painting”, written by Chinese painter and critic Xie He, who lived in the fifth and sixth century, in the preface to his book The Record of the Classification of Old Painters. This is a time that Buddhism was introduced to China from India, as well as a time that ‘art’ itself is questioned as for how it can understand and reflect the nature and society human feel about. At least in Japan, the final destination of Asian culture, ‘Six Principles of Chinese Painting’ is regarded as an important art theory.The basic elements of painting it raised have also been applied outstandingly in modern art.Correspondence to the Object: the modeling abilitySuitability to Type: color perceptionDivision and Planning: space compositionThese elements are what Leandro Erlich, who was born in an architects’ family, best at, and the reasons why his works are vivid and easy to understand.Transmission by Copying: mastering of the classic, or the forefathers’ achievementSuch learning pattern could ensure the modernity of his works. In other words, it offers the audience a new spatial experience. From here we can see Leandro Erlich’s knowledgeability.Bone Method: the unique technique and feeling of the artistBased on the above-mentioned, as I talked about Leandro Erlich’s personal art concept earlier, he is creating a void in homogeneous space by “transferring, copying and reflecting”, and thus creating a new and rich space. The aforementioned five principles can be obtained with practice, except for the last one which is Spirit Resonance.This is the conversation between the work and the audience. In other words, it  points to the realization of a new spatial experience. What Xie He believes is that the overall energy of a work of art may impact the audience. It is full of vitality as if it has the power to shake mountains and rivers. And to judge if a work has that energy, we should see if it has the overall vitality. It seems that Leandro Erlich has such works with spirit resonance.In Buenos Aires, Leandro Erlich’s hometown, there’s a public work named The Democracy of the Symbol. The work covered the top of the city’s iconic monument, and showcased the duplicate of the top in front of the museum. The work seems to be “hidden” before “transferred”, but it is actually made separately after the original was hidden. Although I haven’t been to Buenos Aires, but I heard that it’s a popular place for dating lovebirds and protesting people. Society, politics and power co-exist in this place. Since ancient Greece, squares have been a place for people to voice themselves, sometimes they could also be place of suppression. What does the embodiment mean here? Leandro Erlich lives in South America, but his thought penetrates the whole modern time. It reminds people of Christo’s  artwork ‘Wrapped Reichstag’, or Eisenstein’s movie Battleship Potemkin. Homogeneous city also rises with the support of power. For modern people, can the art museums completely be a place of freedom? This remains to be questioned.Moreover, in Japanese countryside Echigo-Tsumari, in an exchange museum designed by Hiroshi Hara that reminds people of oasis in a desert, Leandro Erlich created a building similar to the structure of urban architecture in the wading pool, as if he was criticizing the modern civilization by “transferring, duplicating and reflecting” the constantly extending modern generic space. People can see the building reflected on the water from the balcony, and can also go into the pool to have fun. He started to move his creative place to squares and countryside, one step closer to the nature which is suffering from destructions.20th century is filled with symbolized information, programmed human and stereotyped space, while Leandro Erlich initiated a bold adventure, trying to break through the leading generic space with the power of art. He’s like Don Quixote who longs to time travel to the Middle Ages, or a modern-time warrior. Leandro Erlich was born in the middle of South America of the old time. Just like Garcia Marquez trying to create a world that overthrows European and North American values with literature, he tries to create a world with his artworks - from the white cubic of galleries and museums to squares that stand for civil society, his footsteps extend to the gradually degenerating, formalizing cities. Let us keep an eye on his adventures.Written by Fram Kitakawa, founder of Echigo-Tsumari Art Triennale and Setouchi Triennale Translated by Liu YanchaoProofread by Lu YufanEdited by Zheng Lijun ...More

Zhang Zikang: Leandro Erlich - --Begin from Amazementing, the Game of Seeing and Believinge...

2019-07-19 115 people interested

Zhang Zikang, Director of the Art Museum of the Central Academy of Fine ArtsCAFA Art MuseumThe Art Museum of Central Academy of Fine Arts(CAFAM) held a solo exhibition for the well-respected artist Leandro Erlich. The exhibition, titled ‘Leandro Erlich: The Confines of the Great Void’, is, which is the mostanother important onesolo exhibition of the artist’s after the onehis solo exhibition in Karlsruhe Art and Media CenterZKM in, 2015in Germany, and anotherthe one in MoriArt Museum, 2017 in Tokyo Japan. in 2017.Prior to this, Leandro’s artworks has attracted massive attention of manytheaudiences all over the world. Through the fermentation of the Internet and social media, his work has reached a wider audience, inspired them to produce numerous photos and interactions on social media. In some sense, the concept of Leandro’s artwork ishas been betterfinished by the participation of the audience. His work also makes people realize that the form of art is being changed by both the audience and the artists, in such a deep interaction with the public. I think this is where the unique charm of Leandro’s art work lies. Through his art work, we get the chance to think about contemporary art and its exhibitions, and about how to form a new viewing relationship with the audience under the catalysis of the new media culture. Losst, vagueness, perceptual confusion---these are the feelings that Leandro’s artworks often brings to the audience. As Leandro said, there is a wide experimental field between seeing and believing. With the spatialpsychologicalsubversion of the ordinary space, such as spatial displacement and architectural illusion, Leandro explores the misplaced problem of the existence ofthe fuzzy boundary betweenexistential reality and consciousness, creates a situation in which the reality and the illusory overlap, and triggers the audience to rethinkthe perception andits diversity.  In order to best express the concepts he wants to elaborate, media and visual forms such as installations, ready-made products, sculptures, videos and even paintings have been adopted by Leandro, and he has successfully created many cultural landscapes that challenge our perception ofperceptual inertia. In Chinese proverbs, thereThere is a sayingin Chinese called “Seeing is believinge”, but Leandro’s artworks makes us feel that “seeing might not be believing”, because this visual artist who was born on the South American continent has made usnaturallymade us wonder ifthink thatthe South American’s magical realistm cultural genes have deeply influenced him. His works have provided a possibility that what we see might not be real.In Leandro’s work, there are many places without clear boundaries--- a Pool that seems to descend from the skyappear out of nowhere, a house that is Pulled up by the RootsUprootedfrom the ground, a closed DoorThe Doors with light leaking from the crackbeneath,a few boats that float on the water that looks like mirror etc. These daily scenes evoke the viewer’s’ sense of reality, like an entrance to “heterotopia”. It echoes tois similar towhat Lao TzuLaozi said, “There is something concrete in the emptiness and there is something real in the ambiguity.”, across two distant cultural time and space. The combination of reality and representation brings illusion to the audience, confusing the direct perception of the human eyes, bringing the audience into the imaginary world which is full of mirroring images.Wherever Leandro Ehrlich’s work goes, there will always be a carnival that embraces visual art. His humor is sharp, and the surprise is just a prelude.In the process of slowly unfoldingAs the storyslowly unfolds, the many pendulumshints he has buriedleft for us are worthy of ourcareful subtle taste.pondering.Written by Co-curator: Zhang Zikang, Director of the Art Museum of the Central Academy of Fine ArtsCAFA Art MuseumTranslated by Liu YanchaoProofread by Lu YufanEdited by Zheng Lijun ...More

艺海征途七十年——著名版画家美术教育家和美术理论家王琦从《晚归》谈起...

2019-07-02 74 people interested

采访时间:2009年7月4日15:00至16:30地点:北京 王琦先生家中访谈双方:王琦:中国著名版画家、木刻运动家、美术教育家和美术理论家。历任中央美术学院教授,中国美术家协会党组书记和常务副主席,中国版画家协会主席,《美术》、《版画》杂志主编、《美术研究》、《世界美术》副主编,为新中国的美术、版画、美术教育和美术理论事业的发展做出了杰出的贡献。刘海平:中央美术学院人文学院博士研究生。著名版画家、木刻运动家、美术教育家、美术理论家王琦先生,已九十一岁高龄,但身体很健康,经常进行艺术创作。他拿出珍藏多年的《晚归》素描创作稿、版画和珍贵的历史照片,与夫人韦贤女士一起,谈起他创作这件代表作的过程,并充满智慧与乐观地与我们分享他为人民、为艺术奋斗一生的许多珍贵故事和经验。刘海平:王先生,前一阵子在中央美术学院美术馆《名师捐献作品展》上,看到您的很多作品,其中就有《晚归》。 王琦:对,我捐献给中央美术学院100多幅作品。他们出了一本画集,我拿给你看看。《晚归》是1955年的作品。但我解放以前的好多作品都没有了,现在展览看不到了。刘海平:谢谢您!您最早是从20世纪30年代开始进行版画创作的吗?《冰天雪地中的游击队员》是您最早的作品吗? 王琦:那是最早在报纸上发表的一张,是1938年。现在中国美术馆和四川有,中央美术学院有复印件。《晚归》这件作品印地就很多了,现二十几个国家的博物馆都有这件作品的收藏。已经印了好几十张,现在版子模糊了。这是1955年我用钢笔画的《晚归》的原稿,是单色的。我还没有给别人看过,也从来没发表过。当时我就是根据这个刻成套色版的。我觉得这个稿子比我《晚归》的版画还好!这是我保存的1979年日中友好协会在日本组织展览时的海报,上面有两幅作品照片,是《晚归》和彦涵的一件作品,当时很受欢迎。《晚归》在苏联的《创作》杂志上也发表过,那是1957年,李桦和力群两个人带了中国的版画去苏联作展览。当时《创作》杂志就发表了《晚归》。刘海平:能请您谈谈《晚归》的创作过程吗? 王琦:那是在东北。我们中央美术学院的教师当时每年都有两三个月的创作假,就是5、6、7三个月。我们那时候一方面教学,另一方面每年两三个月下去体验生活。老师学生都要去,你自己选择地方,到工厂也可以,到农村也可以。搜集素材,搞创作。光靠教学,自己不搞作品是不行的。老师没有作品,学生他也不买你的帐啊。学生是自己下去,老师也是自己下去。同学是分成小股,两三个人一起。1955年,我当时是在东北农村。看到实景后画了一幅写生,现场画速写,回来再画成这张搞创作的钢笔画,准备刻版。我是1952年到中央美术学院任教的,其实1955年创作这幅作品的时候,还在审查我。为什么审查我呢?因为1955年的肃反运动,反胡风。我是中央美术学院唯一一个和胡风有关系的人,就被揪出来了。胡风和我的关系很好。当然,他是老前辈了!他是鲁迅很得意的学生。所以我们搞版画的,鲁迅不在了,就非常尊敬胡风。他也很喜欢版画!他抗战时期编的《七月》杂志,和后来主编的《希望》杂志,都用版画。所以后来反胡风的时候,首先就把我揪出来了,斗争了七八次。(笑)我是要被重点批判的,然后就是审查,从1955年8月一直到第二年3月。我们在东北农村体验生活,是1955年5、6、7三个月,回来8月就开始反胡风。这幅作品是1955年的10月,我在审查期中做出来的。刘海平:《晚归》这件作品至今看来还是很有抒情性的,很浪漫。 韦贤:当时就有人问他,你怎么在受审查的时候还能创作出这样的作品?他说,我相信党,相信党不会冤枉一个好人的!我这个人没问题,干吗害怕呢? 王琦:我回答他们说,我当时心情很愉快,根本没有什么的。《晚归》这幅作品在当时来说,在50年代可以说是我的代表作。但因为当时我在审查之中,所有的报刊都不能发表我的作品。到1956年3月,审查结束了,《人民日报》就发表了这幅作品。接着报纸刊物来约稿的人就多了。这幅作品在《人民日报》第一次发表了以后,全国的很多报纸刊物都发表了,有二三十家。当时是一次印了15份,国家都收购了。当时“对外文化委员会”,组织这幅作品到十五个国展览。后来,陆陆续续又印了一些,到很多国家展览过。我有一个在对外文委工作的好朋友,他已经去世了,知道这幅作品被很多国家收藏。1956年《晚归》在前苏联发表,后来在十几个国家的报刊都发表了,现在全世界有二十几个国家的博物馆有收藏。在我自己的作品来讲,《晚归》是被收藏最多的。1956年在苏联作展览的时候,当时俄罗斯共和国美术家协会的主席施马林诺夫,你知道他吗?他很有名的,在卫国战争的时候,他搞了一套石版画《不能忘记,不能饶恕》,反映希特勒对苏联的残暴。他认为这幅作品对夕阳光的处理非常巧妙。苏联组织了很多画家和批评家开座谈会,开座谈会时,施马林诺夫的发言,对这幅作品评价很高。刘海平:您当时是不是只用了两块版,就把夕阳光的效果表现出来了。 王琦:三块版。一块版是黄颜色,第二块版是紫色,深紫色,第三块版是黑白颜色。这幅作品是来自我对自然的感受,在中国农村对自然的感受。先画成速写,再整理成我给你看的素描稿,再刻版。当时审查的时候,是不让我上课的,在家里待着,闹地很紧张。我不想浪费时间,就在那个时候刻的这个作品,那时候刻了三幅,这一幅最好。刘海平:现在来看这件作品,还是很美。 王琦:也没有什么。现在这块版子不行了。刘海平:能重刻吗? 王琦:我的眼睛不行了,那次动了手术,视网膜脱落,视力就只有0.2。1989年刻了最后一张版画作品。就是这最后一张作品《运河码头》。这张作品刻完以后,刀子就封起来了。所以这幅作品叫“封刀之作”。《古墙老藤》也是晚期的作品,是晚期的代表作了。这张作品在外国的博物馆收藏也很多,但是没有《晚归》这么多。其实《晚归》是副产品。我到东北去,也不是为了要到农村。我到东北去,是到汽车厂。长春汽车厂是我们国家1955年刚刚才开始建的。开始建厂的时候我去了,第二年汽车生产出来,出厂我又去了。《晚归》是在长春附近的郊区写生的。露天煤矿我也去过。1954年我到了辽宁的阜新煤矿。当时阜新发现露天煤矿,是中国的两大矿之一。现在那里的煤都采完了。刘海平:把您的版画创作分三个时期:早期1938年——1949年,中期1950年——1976年,晚期1977年之后,可以这么分吗? 王琦:抗日战争时期可以算一个时期,解放以后从50年代到文革以前算一个时期。然后文革以后改革开放,又是一个时期。基本可以分成这三个时期。《晚归》是第二个时期,50、60年代那时候的许多工业建设题材的作品,都是来自每年三个月体验生活时积累的素材。抗战时期我是在大后方,所以那时期的作品没有在前方战斗的题材。当时我主要是在重庆,搞木刻运动。1942年我在重庆参与组织成立“中国木刻研究会”,负责推动全国的木刻活动。我们联系全国的木刻家,搞展览会和木刻协会,我还同时给三个报纸编木刻副刊。1942年和1943年我们组织了两次“全国双十木刻展”,展出了全国各地木刻家的作品,还有很多周恩来带到重庆的延安木刻家的作品,当时还第一次把中国的新兴版画送到国外(前苏联、英国、美国、印度四国)作了展览。直到“木研会”1946年迁到上海,更名为“中华全国木刻协会”,在四年半多的时间里,我们做木刻的人在重庆一直在共产党的领导下,站在文艺斗争的前列。我当时的作品,题材主要是反映大后方城市里面的下层人民,劳动人民的生活,没有前方的题材。李桦他就不同,他是在战区,所以他有很多抗战题材的作品。古元他是在农村,在陕北农村,他的作品农村题材就多。你看他的农民题材的作品就很多。彦涵又不同,彦涵他是在部队,所以彦涵搞战斗题材比较多。刘海平:后来1946年,您和李桦、野夫等先生一起在上海做了《抗战八年木刻展》。 王琦:对。那是1946年。我带了900多幅作品从重庆到上海,交给了展览组的负责人麦秆,我是编辑组组长。那些作品是全国的作品,都是很珍贵的,选上了897幅。《抗战八年木刻展》这个展览会在中国新兴版画史上,那是影响最大的一次展览,以后再也没有这个规模了。不单是作品多作品好,社会影响也很大!二十几家报纸出了特刊作介绍。包括国民党的报纸也出了。他们没办法嘛,因为社会影响很大。展览开幕那天,9月18日,我们到鲁迅的墓前献花圈。这是当时的合影,这张照片是在鲁迅墓前照的,中间这位是田汉的夫人,《渔光曲》的词作者安娥,当年渔光曲不得了的。还有这张照片,也很珍贵,是在展览会场上。其中这一位是内山完造,鲁迅的朋友。他是上海内山书店的老板。他的兄弟,内山嘉吉,是中国版画的第一个老师。1930年,鲁迅先生请内山嘉吉在中国开办了一个木刻讲义班,班上有十三个人。所以中国的新兴版画为什么从1931年算起呢?就是因为这个木刻讲义班。周恩来当时是中共代表团的团长,他接见了我们木刻会代表,就在中共代表团上海办事处,马斯南路47号。周恩来亲自接见了我们几个人,我、李桦、野夫、陈烟桥还有两个漫画家,最近去世的丁聪,和余所亚。两个漫画家和四个木刻家。在回忆录中我写了,送你一本吧。刘海平:谢谢您!您参与的木刻运动是从20世纪30年代开始的吗? 王琦:那是1938年以后,30年代末期。我基本上是属于40年代的人。38年3月底,上海美专的老师倪贻德邀请我到武汉,在三厅开始工作。三厅就是在武汉的政治部第三厅,厅长是郭沫若,田汉是三厅艺术处处长。三厅是国民政府军事委员会政治部的一个文化宣传机构。周恩来当时是政治部副部长,主管三厅的工作。所以三厅其实是以共产党员为主体,在周恩来的直接领导下开展统一战线的工作。当时《新华日报》上全文发表了毛泽东的《论持久战》,周恩来到三厅来做报告,是对《论持久战》最好的阐释。这是我第一次见到周恩来。我在三厅工作是从1938年4月到8月,在三厅呆了几个月以后,我就和冯法祀、王式廓一起商量去延安。7月下旬时,三厅的罗工柳也去了延安“鲁艺”。8月我到了延安鲁艺,我是“鲁迅艺术学院”美术系第二期的学员。彦涵也是第二期的。我们的木刻老师是沃渣和胡一川。院长是周扬。我在这里第一次拿起木刻刀从事木刻创作。刘海平:您的版画创作在抗战以后是不是有了一些变化。 王琦:50、60年代那时候的题材是工业题材多。后来是农村的题材,再后来比如说《造船厂》这样的作品,又是工业题材。到了后期,改革开放以后,主要是城市的题材。直线多了,装饰感强了,表现城市的速度和运动感。比如说《大街上的旋律》系列。其中一幅作品在大英博物馆有收藏。当时那位东方部的主任,叫龙安妮的英国女士,很欣赏这幅作品。晚期我的版画要分作两组了,藤、大树算是一组,城市街道的题材是一组。80年代的时候我不常到外地去了,接触外界的东西少了,主要就是在城市里面,所以搞了一组城市的建筑作品,就是《大街上的旋律》、《都市交响曲》。当时年纪大了,七十多了,跑不动了。所以出去体验生活必须要在六十岁以前。刘海平:80年代那时候像《古墙老藤》这样的作品,您的风格就变了。 王琦:对,我要是眼睛不坏的话,我的版画风格还要变。正要变的时候,眼睛不行了,不能动刀了。当时想要让我的版画变得更开放,浪漫主义的东西要更多!我的东西,现实主义的东西太多,浪漫主义的东西比较少。你说《晚归》浪漫,但是还不够,这个作品是有一点“诗意”。艺术基本是两大流派,一个是现实主义,一个是浪漫主义。现实主义,表现能够看得见的、摸得到的世界。浪漫主义表现脑子里想象的东西多。所以浪漫主义是天空,现实主义是地面。要把现实主义的地面和浪漫主义的天空连成一片。我的作品,现实主义的地面太多了,没有飞跃到天空里去。我的作品到后期的时候有一点浪漫主义的东西了,像《大街上的旋律》就已经有一点了,但是晚了,年纪不行了。《人民万岁》这组作品中,象征主义的东西也多起来了。这是表现人们在天安门广场纪念周恩来总理。这幅作品中,有一只举火炬的巨手。天安门上哪有这么个巨手呢?不可能有的。这是一种象征,表现周总理。这一幅人民英雄纪念碑前的鹰,是要表现打倒四人帮。这些作品里,想象的东西多起来了。也是因为我当时年纪大了,不能多出去接触现实生活了,但脑子可以尽量地放开,可惜眼睛又不行了,不能再刻了。刘海平:那您可以画画,80年代以后您画了很多水墨画。 王琦:对,但我的水墨画,跟一般国画家又不一样。国画家的画一般不会像我这样构图。我的皴法和一般国画家也不一样,有一点版画的味道。你注意一下我画中的线条,国画家不这么画的,国画家可能更注重传统的皴法。但其实皴法是千变万化的!我不管,我就按照自己的方法画。我的朋友看了我的画,就说“你的皴法,国画家是没有的”。这是我自己的皴法。还有用线,我把版画里的很多因素放到国画里去了。所以我的画我不叫它中国画,就叫水墨画。 因为我这画里面,中国传统的东西很少。我基本上是按照西洋的画法,用自己的素描,用干墨、焦墨绘成底子,然后再用淡水墨铺第二层,最后用颜色。像《峡江滩石》,看上去像中国画,但皴法完全不同。中国画如果画这些山,就会用很多传统的皴法来画。我用线,还有块面,用大块的黑、白、灰的关系来画,这是从版画转过来的。刘海平:中国的版画创作,在80年代之后是不是也是有了一个很大的变化。 王琦:变化很大。首先是版画的品种多了。原来就是木刻,你看抗战时期就是木刻一种,到了50年代的时候增加了铜版、石版,就是三版。现在版画的品种多极了!各种版、各种材料、工具,太多了!去年我到深圳参观“观澜国际版画原创基地”,那里的机械比国外的还要好,有最好的德国的印刷机,是深圳的宝安地区搞的。现在这个观澜国际版画原创基地,恐怕在亚洲都是第一。我们去参观的时候,李岚清也去了。好多版画家都到那里去创作,在那里有工作室。刘海平:版画在中国有特殊的意义。从抗战开始,到50、60年代以后,版画一直有很大的作用、有自己的特点。 王琦:中国的新兴版画是从1931年算起,到现在有70多年了。我的回忆录《艺海风云》中有很多珍贵的第一手材料。因为我记忆力比较好,还有我有笔记,记日记。比如这一章《在集训班中的日子》,那时候有很多发言,只有我才有记录。那是文化大革命开始的时候,1965年,文艺界的有600多人,要集中训练。我们在里边关了三个多月,但天天吃好的。每人8毛钱一天的伙食,大鱼大肉。后来不行了,美院的革命群众说,要“把他们揪回来!”回来就完了,挨批斗。这里边都有生动的描写。可惜这第一版回忆录里面集训班的发言,我写的是某某某发言,要是把真名字写出来就更好了。现在第二版,我要用真名字,有些人也不在了。《王琦文集》中有。这本书中央美院图书馆有两套。这个第一版的回忆录,在浙江美院图书馆有两套,因为看的人多,翻烂了。后来这书没有了,因为印得很少,只印了两千本。现在版画很冷落,是低潮期。好多学版画的学生都转行了。不过他们画得也很好。刘海平:现在中央美术学院版画系有很多个工作室,同学们的能力都很强。作品种类非常丰富。 王琦:现在版画系的主任是苏新平吧。版画系现在也是很不错的。刘海平:您历年来曾主编过《美术》、《美术研究》、《世界美术》、《版画》等许多期刊。 王琦:我是个编辑家。别人说我是木刻家、教育家,其实还有编辑家。为什么搞编辑?搞理论和搞编辑是有关系的。是从1938年作《战斗美术》开始的。当时我和卢鸿基两个人当主编,还有王朝闻。当时卢鸿基、王朝闻、洪毅然他们三个人,从在国立杭州艺专当学生时,就搞理论,鼓吹“为人生而艺术”,出了一个刊物叫《艺术论坛》。王朝闻和卢鸿基是搞雕塑的,洪毅然是搞绘画的,原来都不是搞理论的。后来这三个人都成了理论家。王朝闻就专门搞理论了。洪毅然搞美学,是美学家,他去世了。解放以后我到《版画》作主编,当时是李桦、力群和我,我们三个人。王朝闻到50年代,就是1953年的时候,让洪毅然转告我“叫王琦不要刻木刻了,搞理论。搞木刻的人多得很,你一个人不搞没有关系。搞理论的人太少。”我没有听他的,我还是按照我的办法,一边拿笔,一边拿刀。双管齐下,这是对的。作创作和作理论,两者交叉,我觉得一点不矛盾,互相有帮助。理论会指导我的创作,创作反过来会映证我的理论。我九十岁的时候,他们开了个研讨会,很多人发言,说我有理论家兼创作家的特点。邵大箴也有发言,我请他来主持这个会。我以前是《世界美术》的副主编,当时邵大箴是编辑。朱丹当时管《美术研究》。后来又把我调到《美术》杂志当主编了。那是1980年,打倒四人帮以后,美协刚刚恢复成立,让我和王朝闻两个人当《美术》的主编,就是双主编。我从1980年,81年、82年、83年、84年,干了五年。更早的时候是在50年代,我作《美术研究》的常务编委,那时候没有主编,我们当时是和华东分院合作办《美术研究》。就是中央美术学院华东分院,后来改了,不叫分院了,叫浙江美术学院。我当时是三个常务编委之一,还有王逊,他文化大革命时去世了。浙江方面是金冶。后来我又主编了一些丛书,《中国新文艺大系1976——1982•美术集》还有《当代中国的美术》,还有《100万个为什么》丛书的美术集。李凌编音乐部分。1991年时,又调我到美协当党组书记。“六四”以后,中宣部干部局的副局长到美院来,管文艺的副部长点名叫我去美协。那时我都七十二岁了,都退了。中组部特批,我还得继续工作。整个文联系统离休的干部,然后再拖出来的,就是我一个。去美协作党组书记,当了八年。我以为那一年马上就要换届了,因为到时候了,我顶多再干一年。结果一拖就拖了八年,因为老不开代表大会。整整八年,从七十二岁到八十岁,才真正退下来。后来是刘大为,他现在也退了,现在是吴长江。刘海平:您同时还在版画家协会任主席。 王琦:对,我在版画家协会是主席。但是版画家协会没有经过民政部批准,所以严格地讲它并不合法。但是它影响很大。那是1981年,在黄山开会成立版画家协会的时候,轰轰烈烈。赖少其,他以前是新四军,那时候是安徽省委宣传部副部长,现在也去世了,是他发起的。五六十个代表在黄山,成立中国版画家协会。现在这个协会还是存在的,但是没有什么活动,不能活动,名存实亡。但各个省区有活动。江苏省版画家协会有活动,黑龙江省版画家协会有活动,甘肃省版画家协会有活动。因为它们都是经过省民政局批准注册的。刘海平:您是从20世纪30年代就开始作美术理论和编辑工作的吗? 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廖静文忆徐悲鸿:从重庆到北京...

2019-06-17 74 people interested

廖静文(1923-2015),湖南长沙人,1942年任徐悲鸿主持的中国美术学院资料员,1946年与徐悲鸿结婚。曾任徐悲鸿纪念馆馆长。抗战胜利以后,1946年夏天,我们从重庆坐轮船先到南京,然后由南京坐火车到上海,再从上海坐船到秦皇岛,由秦皇岛乘火车至北平。那个时候不叫北京,叫北平,因为首都在南京。悲鸿本来是南京国立中央大学的“不聘教授”、一级教授。所谓“不聘教授”,是永远不解聘的教授。当时的教育部长朱家骅是悲鸿在德国认识的同学,抗战胜利以后,他当了教育部部长。当时在重庆要复原的学校很多,都要重新聘任校长。他就想邀请徐悲鸿到北平担任北平艺专校长。当时我们到南京后,南京很多人劝我们不要到北平。说现在国共谈判破裂,北方非常不平静,最好不要到北平,留在南京国立中央大学比较稳妥。悲鸿一直想办一所能够推行他自己主张的学校,所以还是坚持到北平来。从南京到达上海的时候,我们去看郭沫若,在郭沫若家里,碰巧见到了中共驻沪办事处的周恩来。周恩来非常鼓励悲鸿到北平接管北平艺专。他鼓励说:我希望你把北平艺专办成一个很好的学校,为国家培养人才。两张船票那是抗战胜利以后第二年。我们很匆忙离开重庆,因为当时要买张船票或者买张飞机票都很困难。在重庆要复原回家的人太多了。我们这两张船票,是悲鸿的老朋友李济深送的。有一天,我们到他家里去看他,他马上就要走,要回南京,还剩两张船票,问我们要不要。那两张票是没有床位的,但那时候弄到船票或飞机票都很困难,我们就要了这两张船票。拿到票后赶快回到对岸的沙坪坝整理东西。重庆的沙坪坝是大学区,在嘉陵江南岸。我们第二天就搭上了“民联轮”的轮船去南京。当时悲鸿还带着好几箱作品。我当时已经怀孕了,怀的第一个孩子也就是后来在人民大学教书的徐庆平。我和悲鸿没有任何人帮助,就赶到下关轮船码头,但是轮船码头那个船上的人,不让我们上船,说轮船已经超重了,你们带这么多箱子,不能上船。悲鸿说如果这些画不能上船,他就不走了。正在这个时候,轮船上有一个工作人员,是我们以前认识的熟人,他听我们讲了以后,说没有关系。他就叫人把这些箱子搬上了轮船。在船上,我跟悲鸿没有床位,只能睡在船板上,很多人挤在一起,每人占一小块地方,拿被子铺了凑合着睡觉。这样,我们坐轮船坐了好几天,然后到了南京。到南京以后,因为悲鸿当时已经得了高血压,他的身体很不好。我叫人从船上把箱子拿下来,让他守着箱子,我跑去雇车拉走。那个时候,南京还有马车。我雇了一辆马车,把箱子搬上去,我们就坐马车进了城。进城以后,因为悲鸿有高血压,我就让他住到医院里去,在医院住了一个月。然后,我到教育部找朱部长拿到悲鸿的聘书,就是聘请他当北平艺专校长的聘书。拿到聘书以后,我就去买火车票,从南京坐火车到上海。在南京养病期间,悲鸿就开始物色北平艺专的教授。他决意要找一个很好的帮手。他有一个学生,叫吴作人。吴作人是悲鸿帮助出国留学的,开始时送他到巴黎去,买的最便宜的船票。吴作人因为幼年丧父,家里很穷,到了巴黎以后,他没有钱吃饭。后来,悲鸿的一个好朋友,以前在法国留学的同学谢寿康当了中国驻比利时的大使,悲鸿托谢寿康拿吴作人的画到比利时皇家美术学院去申请奖学金。比利时皇家美术学院看到吴作人的画很好,就录取他了。吴作人进了皇家美术学院以后,非常努力,学院给了他奖学金,并且给他一个单独的画室。吴作人就在比利时学画,并且和比利时的一个同学沃特(李娜)结了婚,然后回国来。回国来以后,就在悲鸿执教的中央大学艺术系教书,后来慢慢地就当了教授。悲鸿决定到北平艺专来时,就写信给吴作人,请他到北平艺专来教书,担任北平艺专的教务长。我们到上海以后,他又聘了好几个非常好的教师。聘请的人有李桦、王临乙、滑田友、叶浅予、李斛、李可染、李苦禅、冯法祀、周令钊、韦启美、戴泽等,还聘了董希文,还有沈从文。总之,悲鸿还没有到任,就聘了很多全国一流的教授。到北京以后,他又专门去看齐白石,聘齐白石当名誉教授,教国画。那个时候,可以说全国最有名的画家都集中到了北平艺专。 拒绝南迁解放战争到1949年的时候,已经打到北平的城门口。当时,南京的教育部派飞机去接很多有名的大学教授,像北京大学、清华大学和北平艺专。各个大学的名教授、校长,教育部都派飞机去接。在当时,第一个走的就是北大的校长胡适。胡适是坐第一批飞机走的。胡适走了以后,飞机场就被共产党占领了,飞机不能降落了。当时,国民党命令把树砍掉,在城里做了一个临时飞机场,派了两架飞机,把各大学校长、名教授都接走了。像清华大学的梅贻琦,故宫研究院的院长等。当时悲鸿也是要被接走的,但是,悲鸿拒绝走。教育部汇了一笔钱来,叫南迁费,让北平艺专的师生迁到南方去。当时悲鸿就在北平艺专召开校务会议,让大家讨论是不是南迁。悲鸿本人就不赞成南迁,吴作人他们也都不赞成,结果,赞成南迁的人占极少数,绝大多数都不赞成南迁。最后悲鸿就根据大家的意见,把这笔钱分了一部分给学校的教职员工。另外买了很多小米,存到学校里面,准备如果围城久了,不至于没有粮食吃。结果北平被围城也有一个月,街上买不到菜,但我们每天都可以喝到小米稀饭,吃那个酱园的酱萝卜干。整整围了一个月。当时北平艺专有很多地下党员,像现在的侯一民,就是地下党的支部书记。当时,傅作义是北京城内的最高司令员。北京城里还有20 万军队,蒋介石命令他一定要守住北平。当时傅作义的女儿就是地下党员,她答应劝他父亲不要守城。傅作义毕竟觉得这是女儿啊,还是要考虑她的意见。他找了很多有名的教授来,跟大家讨论北平是守还是不守。那天悲鸿也是被邀请去开会的。傅作义把这个问题提出来,要大家发表意见。当时,因为北平还没有解放,特务很多,一般人都不敢讲话。傅作义讲了话以后,没有人敢发言。悲鸿就第一个发言,他说,北平是一座有名的文化古城,为了保存北平城市的建筑,也为了北平城里面老百姓的生命安全,希望傅作义将军能够下决心和平解放北平。他那天去开会,我在家里等着。当时吴作人他们也在我家等着,都等消息。等到了很晚,悲鸿回来了,告诉我们开会的情况。大家都很高兴。当时北平城内很乱,钞票已经不值钱,街上到处都是卖银元,卖现大洋的,或者是卖美金的。悲鸿回到家以后,当天晚上就接到一个人的电话,他问徐悲鸿在不在家?我说,他已经睡了,你有话跟我说。那个人就在电话里告诉我说:你告诉徐悲鸿,叫他小心自己的脑袋!我知道是特务威胁,所以当时要留在北平也不容易。我们还去看了齐白石。齐白石当时已经八十多岁了,很多人跟他讲:共产党有一个名单,进城以后要杀谁,这个名单里有你的名字,因为你卖画有钱,共产党专门杀有钱的人。八十多岁的齐白石很害怕,我们到他家去,正好航空公司来电话问他订几张飞机票,他准备逃到香港。当时我们就告诉他,叫他别走,我们也不走。如果北平乱了,我们把他接到北平艺专去住,大家保护他。齐白石最听悲鸿的话,悲鸿讲什么他都相信。那样齐白石也没有走。过了几天,北平就和平解放了。 悲鸿请毛主席题写校名1949年,解放以后,中央人民政府就提出来,把华北大学三部,就是解放区来的,跟北平艺专合并,办一个中央美术学院。当时还不叫中央美术学院,叫国立美术学院。所以国立美术学院最初是跟华大三部合并的,像罗工柳他们都是华大三部合并过来的。当时是周恩来亲自发聘书,聘徐悲鸿做国立美术学院校长。悲鸿请毛主席写校牌,写了“国立美术学院”。后来改成中央美术学院。这个校牌还是毛主席写的。我们家有六封毛主席亲笔写的信,第一封就是悲鸿请他写学校的校牌。他亲自写了一个,而且亲自回信给悲鸿先生:来示敬悉。还写了一句“未知可用否”。这是第一封信。后来,还通过好几封信,所以在我们家到现在还保存了好多封毛主席的亲笔信。一直到悲鸿去世。1953年,我又到北京大学去读书。那个时候,我已经30 岁,跟悲鸿结婚有六年多了。我原来就是在大学读书,因为结婚照顾悲鸿,就放弃了读书。悲鸿过世以后,我重新到北京大学中文系学习。当时毛主席知道了,派他的秘书田家英拿着他亲自写的信,问我有没有困难,说如果有困难,要我告诉他。我当时正在北大上课,校长办公室来人叫我,马上出来,说有人要见我。我在课堂里跑到校长办公室,田家英就把毛主席的信给我看,当时我一面看,一面流泪,非常感动。我告诉他,没有困难,不需要帮助。田家英走的时候,还跟我讲,如果有困难,你就跟毛主席写信。我这封信,现在也留在家里。悲鸿在北平艺专和中央美院,可以说倾注了他全部的精力。要办好这个学校,在中央美院,他坚持他的教学方法,要画严格的素描,不论哪一科,都要学两年素描。因为素描是绘画的基础。他自己虽然是校长,但他很少坐在办公室,他一般都到每个教室里去看,每天都去看看每个教师教得怎么样,看看每个学生画得怎么样。一直到1953年他去世。在他去世之前,还到中央美术学院给学生补课。他说,那么多学生,还没有学他讲的美术史。他找了很多图片,放在美术学院的玻璃柜里面,告诉他们哪些是最好的画,哪些是不好的画。有一次,我跟他一起到美术学院去,因为他从病了以后,我一直担心他再发脑溢血,所以每次我都陪着他去上课。有一次他往玻璃柜里面摆图片的时候,有一个学生看到他摆的一张图片,说“这个画画得真好”。悲鸿马上说,这是最坏的画,因为他画得跟照片一模一样!1941年摄于重庆沙坪坝,前排右起为廖靖文、徐悲鸿、张葳、郁风,后排左一为张安治,后排右一为黄苗子1943年,徐悲鸿与廖静文摄于四川青城山1945年在重庆磐溪,背景为中国美术学院,左起为廖靖文、徐悲鸿、张葳、周千秋、佚名、张安治、张苏予、宗其香等1950年4月1日,在北京王府井校尉胡同5号大礼堂举行中央美术学院成立典礼建院初期的徐悲鸿院长1948年,徐悲鸿与夫人廖静文、儿子徐庆平、女儿芳芳合影徐悲鸿与夫人廖静文及儿子庆平采访时间/2013年6月采访/陈卓整理/秦建平 赵 晶原文发表于《美术研究》2018年第2期 ...More

20世纪上半叶中国美术现代性的两种叙事——以“先驱之路:留法艺术家与中国现代美术(1911-1949)”展为例...

2019-06-04 118 people interested

内容提要:本文是“先驱之路:留法艺术家与中国现代美术(1911-1949)”展策展理念的深化,旨在研究在20世纪上半叶中国美术转型的历史节点上,那些选择了将中国美术由传统走向现代的发展之路的留法艺术家们。无论是倾向于西方学院派古典主义、写实主义、现实主义的“科学”的现代性诉求之路探索的先驱们,还是那些接近西方现代主义诸流派的“民主”的现代性诉求之路的前行者们,都殊途同归,共同促进了20世纪上半叶中国美术现代性的发展,并推动了20世纪中国美术基本面貌的形成与演变。关键词:留法艺术家;现代性;20世纪中国美术留学(包括游学)是19世纪末20世纪上半叶兴起的中国历史,尤其是文化史中最富时代特征的现象之一。中国近代的留学运动始于19世纪末,先是主要留学日本,20世纪初的1906年左右清政府开始官派少数青年留学欧美。此后,从清末至新中国成立之前,期间自费、公派出国的留学生人数众多,他们在政治、经济、军事、思想、文化、美术等各领域研习精进,归国后贡献了巨大力量,做出杰出贡献,成为众多领域的先驱者和奠基人。具体到美术领域,留学欧洲热潮以法国巴黎为核心展开,王如玖和吴法鼎[1]都是在1911年转学法国巴黎高等美校专习美术,开启了留法艺术家的先驱之路[2]。尽管随后也有李超士[3]、方君璧[4]等少数青年自费赴法学习美术,但是,直到1915年蔡元培在法国与吴稚晖、李石曾、吴玉章等创办了“留法勤工俭学会”,以实际行动、组织保证和多次撰文倡导青年留学欧美。自此, 自费、半工半读、公费留学法国专门学习美术的青年才突增起来,林风眠即属第一批勤工俭学留法艺术生中的一员。而1919年北洋政府第一次专门划拨一个公费留法名额给美术专业,获得这个名额的就是徐悲鸿。 换句话说,徐悲鸿是中国第一位公费留法艺术生——尽管,这个公费名额是蔡元培为他直接争取来的。可以说,徐悲鸿是带着自己和时代赋予他的历史使命——“为人生而艺术“赴法留学的。徐悲鸿认为中国画学之颓败皆因为文人画所致,改良的办法,需要“实写”,要“按现世已发明之术,规模真景物”,达到“惟妙惟肖”,以此改良中国画,挽救颓败的中国画,[5]以期寻找一条将中国美术由传统向现代转型的出路。徐悲鸿提出的“实写”,即是随后陈独秀发表在1919年1月15日《新青年》第6卷第1号《美术革命(复吕澂信)》(吕澂的信发表在1918年12月15日的《新青年》上)中 的“写实主义”,这恐怕是针对美术界第一次提出以西方写实主义改良中国画。[6]同年10月,稍早于陈独秀,蔡元培在刚成立不久的“北大画法研究会”第二次开班授课的演讲上也强调:“此后对于习画,余有两种希望:即多做实物的写生,及持之以恒二者是也。中国画与西洋画,其入手方法不同。中国画始自临摹,外国画始自写实……今吾辈学画,当用研究科学之方法贯注之……用科学方法以入美术。”[7]徐悲鸿此时正被蔡元培邀请在“北大画法研究会”担任水彩画导师,并且,为了掌握他在文中提到的“现世已发明之术”,也就是蔡元培提到的“科学方法”,他远渡重洋,在巴黎高等美校接触、选择和认真学习了8年并终生坚持了学院派写实主义风格、手法及艺术主张。[8]1927年9月回国后,他一方面积极创作大型油画历史画,响应蔡元培以“科学方法”创作中国自己的大型历史画的美育主张;一方面投身美术教育,先后在全国各地公、私美术学校教授青年学生,推行写实主义教育教学主张,同时效仿蔡元培当年对他的举荐,多次向国民政府推举多位青年才俊赴法、英、美研习美术;另一方面,他还以强大的个人魅力和有效的社会活动力,将大批志同道合的新派名家团聚在自己周围,形成了目前学界所言的“徐悲鸿体系”。说到体系,不免使人想到新文化运动中倡导的“民主”与“科学”思想。徐悲鸿掌握和奉行的学院派写实主义艺术主张,可以看作是新文化运动“民主”与“科学”思想中“科学”信念与态度在美术界的回应。1915年兴起的新文化运动中,陈独秀提出了“国人而欲脱蒙昧时代,……当以科学与人权并重”。[9]并将“民主”(人权)与“科学”形象地比喻为“德先生”和“赛先生”,[10]并且强调“只有这两位先生,……才可以救治中国政治上道德上学术上思想上一切的黑暗”。[11]由此,以陈独秀为代表的一批社会精英,不但完成了将辛亥革命以来自发的“民主”“科学”观念上升到自觉的层面,尤其将其上升到关系国家兴亡的历史高度,这非常契合当时兴起的普遍的民族觉醒意识。具体来讲,提倡“民主”是为了反抗专制君权,为了启蒙国人做自己的主人,不做身体和精神上的奴隶,实现个体的解放与精神的自由;提倡“科学”是为了反抗旧道德旧伦理,反对封建盲从,提倡实证主义经验哲学,也就是陈独秀说的“实利”,重点在倡导理性。 “民主”与“科学”信念在20世纪上半叶成为时代变革的号角,成为中国从传统社会出走后的历史选择,也就是我们现在所说的成为20世纪上半叶中国的现代性表征。徐悲鸿在时代洪流面前,选择了“科学救国”的艺术探索之路,不过,他并非如他自己所言“独持偏见,一意孤行”,而是有大批的志同道合者。倾向于学院派写实主义的美术家除了他之外,还有李金发、李风白、吕斯百、吴作人、王临乙、刘开渠、萧淑芳、韩乐然、谢投八、秦宣夫、唐一禾、吕霞光、胡善馀、曾竹韶、王子云、滑田友、张充仁、李瑞年、廖新学、黄觉寺,以及在徐悲鸿之前就已经开始进行实践的吴法鼎,及倾向于学院派新古典主义的王如玖、郭应麟、常书鸿等。这一批留法艺术家以严谨理性“科学”的学院派写实造型体系,不但进行着油画语言的探索,而且体验着不同于中国传统文化对于世界的把握和表达的新的视觉经验,那就是相对精确、客观地再现客观现实,而不是如文人画那样只写“胸中逸气”。这一批美术家的艺术实践可以说一定程度上实现了康有为、蔡元培、徐悲鸿、陈独秀早在20世纪第一个十年中倡导的以西方的写实主义改良中国传统书画的愿景。在以西方科学的比例、体积、透视、空间、光影、色调、质感、细节刻画等一系列系统的写实性造型语言进行中国画改良实践的画家中,也以徐悲鸿为代表,包括他的“彩墨画”“夜景画”概念的提出与实践,包括他在中国人物画振兴、传统山水画向风景画的转变、传统花鸟画、动物画的写实造型语言探索方面,都为20世纪上半叶中国传统美术向现代的转型提供了各种可能性和可行性探索。相比之下,与徐悲鸿同学于巴黎高等美校的林风眠,[12]同样带着自己和时代赋予他的历史使命——“为艺术而艺术”赴法留学。只是,他没有完全醉心于学院派写实主义的“科学”艺术之路,而是更倾心于“民主”精神——他迷恋上了学院之外的西方现代主义诸流派,在林风眠看来,这些画派能够充分传达人类的情感,这正是他醉心于艺术的核心所在。[13]林风眠一生追求“艺术是人类情感的表现”,这不仅离不开他第戎的恩师杨西斯(Yancesse)的谆谆教诲,[14]也与他的德籍第一任夫人罗拉不无关系,与他一生秉承蔡元培“兼容并包、学术自由”的治学及教育理念密不可分,也可以说是他自己的个性使然。根据现存文献中的黑白图片,约略可见林风眠在1924-1927年间创作的几幅巨幅油画作品《摸索》《人类的历史》《人道》《民间》等,题材和主题充满悲怆的历史感、深沉的悲剧意识、殷切的现实关怀,其造型和笔触激烈、有力、狂放,作品中野兽派的色彩,[15]立体派的形式构成,以及德国表现主义的象征性和表现性,加之林风眠独特磅礴的气势和真挚充沛的感染力,这些都深深感动了蔡元培,他对林风眠极为赞赏。要知道,恐怕只有在林风眠身上,蔡元培才看到了他的“美育代宗教说”完美的实践者和实现者。蔡元培急急地让还在求学阶段年仅25岁的林风眠回国,接任国立北平艺专校长,之后更是接二连三委以重任。林风眠也在之后的杭州艺专任校长期间,秉承蔡元培“兼容并包、学术自由”的治学及教育理念,网罗和培养了众多艺术人才,使杭州成为传播和实践西方现代主义诸画派的重镇。倾向于抽象艺术的吴大羽、赵无极,追求形式美感的吴冠中,追求巴黎画派意味的雷圭元、对油画语言的纯粹性精益求精的胡善馀、董希文[16]等,皆是留法艺术家中与林风眠和杭州艺专关系密切的油画家。诚如前文所述,蔡元培在“北大画法研究会”第二次开班授课的演讲上,强调用西方写实的科学方法进行美术创作这一理想,以徐悲鸿为代表的一批学院派新古典主义、写实主义艺术家得以实现;而蔡元培更认为“现今最流行的表现派,尤与中国式相接近”。[17]蔡元培这里所说的表现派,主要指后印象派、野兽派、巴黎画派、德国表现主义。而与蔡元培此观点高度一致的,除了林风眠,还有刘海粟。刘海粟自1912年参与创办中国第一个私立美术学校以来,通过美术教育、艺术创作、社会活动等,在上海产生持久而巨大的影响。某种程度上可以说,上海在整个20-30时代,都属于刘海粟的时代。确切地说,属于刘海粟倡导的印象派、后印象派、野兽派、立体派等西方现代主义诸画派风靡上海的时代。刘海粟此时只短暂考察过日本现代艺术,还没有去过法国,但是他广泛接触美术期刊,从而接触到当时法国巴黎最流行也最前卫的画派——印象派、后印象派、野兽派、立体派等。而蔡元培对刘海粟艺术风格的理解极为中肯和深刻,他在1922年称赞并指出“刘君的艺术,是倾向于后期印象主义,他专喜描写外光;他的艺术,纯是直观自然而来,”而且“很深刻地把个性表现出来。”且“他的个性是十分强烈。”“总是主观地抒展自己的情感。”[18]之后倪贻德也持此观点。1929年2月刘海粟得蔡元培赏识,为其争取到以教育部考察员之名赴欧洲各国考察游历。这就使得他的欧洲之行在身份上完全不同于其他留法艺术家,他不是作为学生,而是作为功成名就的大师级“访问学者”赴欧进行艺术交流。刘海粟在1929-1931年间创作的大量油画风景画,具有明显的印象派、后印象派、野兽派画风,其中多件作品还专门选取他心仪的现代主义诸画派画家的视角进行现场写生。[19]  旅欧回国后刘海粟致力于编写《西画苑》,系统介绍西方现代主义诸画派,尤其对后印象派、野兽派极为推崇。此书尤其擅长将西方现代主义诸画派与中国古代传统书画做对比联系,这一点也是蔡元培一贯喜用的方式。整个30年代,刘海粟在上海的影响更加广泛,追随者众,这更加速了当时在法国学院派之外流行的现代主义诸画派在上海的发展和接受度。热衷于立体主义的庞薰琹及“决澜社”对形式语言的探索、衷情于巴黎画派的张弦、进行印象派探索的潘玉良、唐蕴玉,色粉画大家李超士、热衷于点彩派的周碧初,他们在留法前后都与刘海粟及上海有紧密联系。 概而论之,20世纪上半叶众多的留法艺术家们,既接受了“科学”的西方学院派古典主义、写实主义、现实主义美术,也带回了“民主”的西方现代主义诸流派,他们共同为20世纪初期中国美术带来了传统书画体系之外的油画(西画、西洋画)、雕塑、素描、色粉、水彩等新的美术类别和新的美术观念,甚至与之相关的新的生活方式,从而成为活跃在中国20世纪上半叶的重要群体之一,奠基、开拓、改变、丰富了20世纪上半叶中国美术的发展。正如前文所述,在20世纪上半叶中国美术转型的历史节点上,留法艺术家们选择了将中国美术由传统走向现代的发展之路,从而成为20世纪中国美术现代性文化诉求的先驱者和践行者,成为中国美术从传统向现代转型的奠基者、开拓者。无论是那些倾向于西方学院派古典主义、写实主义、现实主义的“科学”的现代性诉求之路探索的先驱们,还是那些接近西方现代主义诸流派的“民主”的现代性诉求之路的前行者们,都殊途同归,共同促进了20世纪上半叶中国美术现代性的发展,并推动了20世纪中国美术基本面貌的形成与演变。作者|红梅(“留法大展”策展人、中央美院副教授、硕士生导师、中央美院美术馆理论出版部主任)原文发表于《美术研究》2019年02期 注:[1]王如玖于1906年被清政府北洋速成武备学堂第一批官派赴法学习陆军,但在1911年,他放弃军事学习,转学到巴黎高等美校和布尔德尔雕塑工作室,学习油画和雕塑。吴法鼎于1911年公派赴法留学研习法律,同年转学巴黎高等美校学习油画。[2]这就是为什么本次展览题目“先驱之路:留法艺术家与中国现代美术(1911-1949)”(以下简称留法大展)中标示的时间是从1911年,而不是惯常采用的民国元年,即1912年的主要原因。当然,从历史学的角度看,作为“辛亥革命”的1911年也非常重要,尤其是“辛亥革命”激发起的“民主”、“科学”思想,与本展览和本文关系密切。令笔者感到欣慰的是,在这次留法大展的专题研究中,历史学和艺术史断代完美重合。[3]李超士于1912年入法国巴黎瑟尔曼图画学校,后转入巴黎高等美校。[4]方君璧于1912年入法国波尔多省立美校,1919年考入巴黎高等美校,与徐悲鸿同考同入学。[5]徐悲鸿于1918年5月14日在北大画法研究会演讲《中国画改良之方法》,之后,《北京大学日刊》的“画法研究会纪事十九”,于 5月23、24、25日三天连载徐悲鸿的演讲词,并增加了附录。[6]陈独秀在文章开篇即说:“若想把中国画改良,首先要革王画的命。因为要改良中国画,断不能不采用洋画的写实精神。”并在文末提出“……若不打倒着(这里指王画),实是输入写实主义,改良中国画的最大障碍”。[7]引自:赵力,余丁主编:《中国油画文献》,湖南美术出版社,2002年,第413页。[8]本次留法大展中徐悲鸿的《杨仲子全家福》、《箫声》等作品即是典型。[9]引自《陈独秀著作选编》第一卷,上海人民出版社,2009年,第162页。[10]德先生:民主的英文Democracy音译的简称;赛先生:科学的英文Science音译的简称。[11]《陈独秀著作选编》第二卷,第10页。[12]林风眠1918年年底随留法的勤工俭学团来到巴黎。1920年2月入法国第戎国立美校,1920年9月转学巴黎高等美校,与徐悲鸿同学于柯罗蒙工作室。[13]林风眠信奉托尔斯泰“艺术是人的情感的表现”说,也信奉蔡元培“美育代宗教”说,这构成了他的基本艺术观。这一点在他1927发表的《致全国艺术界书》的长文中有详细阐述。[14]1920年,林风眠进入法国第戎国立美术学院学习油画,得到第戎美术学院院长杨西斯(Yancesse)的赏识,并经常告诫他不要只学习学院派,尤其不要成为学院派的一员。[15]色彩运用、色调处理方面,可以从此次“留法大展”中展出的约作于1926年的《思》,又名《哀思》中领略。此作品画的是林风眠的第一任夫人,德国少女罗拉。1924年他们在德国相识,很快进入热恋并结婚。然而罗拉不幸于1925年死于产褥热,林风眠一度非常悲痛。此作品应该是林风眠在罗拉去世后不久根据记忆创作而成。画中罗拉紧闭双眼,寓意美人已逝。这幅作品的黑白图版被陈抱一收录在1929年再版的《人体之美》一书中,是难得一见的林风眠早期油画。此作品典型地富有野兽派的色彩,立体派的形式构成,以及德国表现主义的象征性和表现性。[16]1939年董希文从北平艺专和杭州艺专两校合并的国立艺专毕业,经学校推荐,作为留法预备班学生到越南河内巴黎国立高等美术学院分院学习,受到法国教师指导,并看到不少西欧画册及原作,同时接触到色彩浓郁的越南漆画艺术。因战事爆发,国内官费停止,被迫提前回国。这一段在越南河内巴黎美专分院的学习,使董希文直接接触到法国学院派古典主义绘画技法及审美经验的训练,构成他日后独特油画语言及个人风格形成的重要因素。1946年6月,董希文结束长达10年的漂泊生活,回到故乡杭州父母身边。董希文运用从越南河内巴黎美专分院学习到的学院派古典主义绘画技法,为父母画了这两幅肖像画,以此表达对年迈父母的敬意和长期分离的思念之情。由于董希文不是在地理意义上的法国接受到法国学院派古典主义教育,遂成为此次“留法展”中唯一一位没有踏上法国国土的“留法”分院艺术家。将董希文纳入此次“留法展”,希望引起学术界的深度讨论,从不同视角探讨留法艺术家的文化影响。[17]蔡元培:《巴黎万国美术工艺博览会中国会场陈列品目录序》,引自金雅主编:《中国现代美学名家文丛:蔡元培卷》,浙江大学出版社,2009年。[18]引自:赵力,余丁主编《中国油画文献》,湖南美术出版社,2002年,第448-449页。[19]如此次展览中的《秋葵》是向凡高致敬,《威斯敏斯达落日》是向莫奈致敬,《罗丹的模特》是向马蒂斯致敬。主要参考书目:李泽厚著:《中国思想史编》,安徽文艺出版社,1999年汪辉著:《现代中国思想的兴起》,三联书店,2008年史全生主编:《中华民国文化史》,吉林文史出版社,1990年李铸晋、万青力著:《中国现代绘画史》,浙江大学出版社,2012年赵力、余丁主编:《中国油画文献》,湖南美术出版社,2002年王震编著:《徐悲鸿年谱长编》,上海画报出版社,2006年 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